É com data posterior

No caso de datas, significa que a data posterior, é a que vem depois da data da. emissão. Se a data da emissão por exemplo, for 26/04/2013, a data posterior, tem que ser qualquer data, desde que seja a partir do dia 27/04/2013, nunca . antes. Espero ter ajudado. Boa sorte. Notas Fiscais Eletrônicas com data de emissão posterior a 31 de março de 2011 somente terão seu uso autorizado se forem transmitidas utilizando o leiaute 2.0. Hoje, a Nota Fiscal Eletrônica é obrigatória para quais setores? Orçamentos do mês posterior Boa tarde pessoal. Meu nome é Luis, sou iniciante no Qlikview e estou preciso de ajuda para a seguinte situação. Tenho uma aplicação que todo começo de mês congela os orçamentos e grava em QVD's onde o nome do arquivo é a data do congelamento. A palavra sentinela designa, numa das suas acepções, o soldado ou, em contextos civis, a pessoa encarregada de efectuar a vigilância. Apesar de poder designar uma pessoa de sexo masculino, esta palavra surge nos dicionários como substantivo sobrecomum, registada apenas com o género feminino, à semelhança de outras palavras como criança ou pessoa. A pós-datação da cártula não altera o prazo prescricional que é considerado a partir da emissão. Precedentes do STJ. Nota promissória. Data de emissão posterior à data de vencimento. Vício que afronta os requisitos de certeza e exigibilidade do título executivo. Carência de ação. Possibilidade de se conhecer de ofício sobre a ... ‘The Japanese data were also recently released by the Ministry of Finance of Japan but are available only for the period posterior to May 1991.’ Synonyms later than , subsequent to, following, succeeding, after O significado de Posterior no Dicionário Português. Posterior, o que é: adj.m. e adj.f. Que aparece ou fica depois de; subsequente; Que se e... Significado de posterior. O que é posterior: que acontece depois Posterior, do latim posterĭor, é um adjectivo que se refere a algo que está ou que fica atrás, no verso ou nas traseiras.O termo também pode ser usado para designar aquilo que acontece depois de uma certa altura ou de um determinado momento.. Exemplos “O desenho mostra a parte posterior do corpo humano”, “Foi até ao quarto que estava na zona posterior do edifício e escondeu a ... Boa tarde a Todos Possuo um relatório de gastos, onde quero analisar o mês atual (mês selecionado), o os gastos realizados nos 3 meses anteriores, e os gastos orçados nos 3 próximos meses. Ex: Ao selecionar o mês de JULHO, segue o que desejo: 1ª Coluna - Gastos realizados de Abril 2ª Coluna - Gas...

MY NIPT RESULTS SHOW THIS ABNORMALITY, WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? WHAT ARE MY CHANCES OF IT BEING A TRUE POSITIVE? WHAT SONO FINDINGS AND OTHER INFO TO LOOK FOR? SHOULD I GET CVS OR AMNIO? Individual chromosome results break down here. Results for Trisomy 21, 18, 13, X, no result, triploidy, XXX, XXY etc

2020.09.16 04:27 chulzle MY NIPT RESULTS SHOW THIS ABNORMALITY, WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? WHAT ARE MY CHANCES OF IT BEING A TRUE POSITIVE? WHAT SONO FINDINGS AND OTHER INFO TO LOOK FOR? SHOULD I GET CVS OR AMNIO? Individual chromosome results break down here. Results for Trisomy 21, 18, 13, X, no result, triploidy, XXX, XXY etc

MY NIPT RESULTS SHOW THIS ABNORMALITY, WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? WHAT ARE MY CHANCES OF IT BEING A TRUE POSITIVE? WHAT SONO FINDINGS AND OTHER INFO TO LOOK FOR? SHOULD I GET CVS OR AMNIO? Individual chromosome results break down here. Results for Trisomy 21, 18, 13, X, no result, triploidy, XXX, XXY etc
** I wrote this up to anyone receiving their initial result, so they can refer to main post as well as this post for information**
Main post here about NIPT and more info: https://www.reddit.com/NIPT/comments/ecjj5v/welcome_to_rnipt_the_sub_for_abnormal_nipt/
This post will contain chromosome specific issues for anyone first receiving the result.
I will update more later when I have some more time, this took forever and I hope you all find it helpful!

MY RESULTS SHOW THIS, WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? WHAT ARE MY CHANCES OF IT BEING A TRUE POSITIVE? WHAT SONO FINDINGS AND OTHER INFO TO LOOK FOR? SHOULD I GET CVS OR AMNIO?

*** NOTE ON RESULTS FOR TRIPLE SCREEN LABS AKA NT SCAN, PAPPA, HCG IF DONE AT 11-13 weeks along with NIPT.
NT AND TRIPLE SCREEN RESULTS TYPICAL RESULTS FOR TRISOMIES / MONOSOMY X and TRIPLOIDU
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Median-interquartile-range-maternal-age-crown-to-rump-length-NT-PAPP-A-MoM-free_tbl1_26833668
Above is a chart table of MOM is “normal” when that is 1 meaning 1 is an average along all normal pregnancies. This is called the triple screen and what is used to determine someone may be at risk for trisomy if a formula determines that all 3 tests are somewhat abnormal as well as your age. This is not the NIPT but the "usual" test done at 11-13 weeks. These are the values that may indicate risk. Median of mean is the middle / average. The above are averages away from this median of normal. Values are either decreased or increased but can also be normal.
  • Trisomy 21 NT high or normal, Pappa low or normal, HCG high or normal
  • Trisomy 18 NT high or normal, Pappa low or normal, HCG low or normal,
  • Trisomy 13 NT high or normal, papa low or normal, HCG low or normal
  • Turner’s X NT very high, Pappa Low or normal, HCG usually normal
  • Triploidy maternal: NT normal, low papa, low hcg
  • Triploidy paternal: NT normal, normal or low PAPPA, VERY HIGH HCG
Here is another nice summary

https://www.semanticscholar.org/papeFirst-trimester-Screening%3A-An-Overview-Eiben-Glaubitz/91210e5a2e4847395e6206ad34110b74062df784/figure/0
CONFINED PLACENTAL MOSAICISM explained with CVS RESULTS: Please refer to main post for more information https://www.reddit.com/NIPT/comments/ecjj5v/welcome_to_rnipt_the_sub_for_abnormal_nipt/
Basically, younger women can be prone to embryo correcting cells while it is developing and having abnormal cells go in to placenta where the baby is not affected. NIPT picks this up giving a positive, but further amnio follow up results in a normal fetus. This is always the most likely cause for a "false positive NIPT" There are 3 types.
  1. Type 1 affects outer layer so "short term culture" of CVS. This is the most inaccurate result and should not be used to terminate a pregnancy if sonographic result is normal. Long term culture is more accurate, and is usually true in cases of trisomy 21 but may not be true in others making amnio a better choice. More on this below in each chromosome affected.
  2. Type 2 makes NIPT normal, and really does not spark issues much since the outer layer is normal, and has a normal fetus.
  3. Type 3 is WHERE THINGS BECOME PROBLEMATIC FOR CVS. Some chromosome CPM are prone to this - this is especially true for Trisomy 13 and 18. A normal fetus on sono with an abnormal CVS in long term culture should have amniocentesis to prevent wrongful termination. Both short and long term culture can be affected as trisomic and still have a normal fetus. More in each chromosome issues below and here is a quick summary.
https://simul-europe.com/2017/dip/Files/([email protected])abstrakti%20barcelone.pdf

Mechanisms of origin of mitotic and meiotic CPM. (A) Mitotic CPM arises from a diploid zygote when a postzygotic error occurs in one of the placental cell lineages (trophoblast or mesenchymal stroma). Usually, the placentas with mitotic CPM will have localised trisomic regions and low levels of mosaicism. (B) Meiotic CPM is a result of a trisomic zygote rescue. Fetal karyotype is diploid due to the loss of trisomic chromosome from embryonic progenitors during early embryonic development. At term, placentas with meiotic CPM have high levels of mosaicism or even 100% aneuploidy. https://fn.bmj.com/content/79/3/F223
SAMPLES OF 100% INNER AND OUTER LAYER OF CVS WITH TRISOMY AND NORMAL KARYOTYPE FETUSES. FOR INFORMATION ABOUT HOW CVS IS NOT THE SAME AS AMNIO and should not be called diagnostic imo. https://ndownloader.figstatic.com/files/11073932
  • Case 1 Both outer and inner placenta + for trisomy 18, amnio normal
  • Case 2 Outer layer monosomy x, inner layer mosaic for monosomy x, amnio normal
  • Case 3 Outer layer + 21 mosaic, inner layer normal, amnio normal = couple terminated despite genetic counseling telling them this is a healthy baby
  • Case 9 100% of inner and outer cells + trisomy 16 amnio normal
  • Case 10 100% inner and outer cells + trisomy 15 amnio normal
  • Case 12 100% inner and outer cells of cvs trisomy 16 amnio normal
  • Case 18 100% inner and outer cells of cvs trisomy 16
  • Case 21 / 22 100% inner and outer cells of cvs trisomy 16 and 13 but baby died in utero due to placental issues but had normal karyotype in fetus
  • Case 25 100% inner and outer cells of cvs trisomy 5, normal karyotype at birth
  • Case 26 100% 100% inner and outer cells of cvs trisomy 16 normal karyotype birth
  • Case 33 100% inner and outer cells of cvs trisomy 7, normal karyotype at birth precclampsia

NOW, for concerns regards screen positive results of NIPT for each chromosome of interest. YOUR RESULTS OF NIPT SHOW:

NO RESULTS, or LOW FETAL FRACTION RESULT from Natera/Panorama

TLTR: The most common NIPT concern, do not panic. Happens in 5% of Natera/Panorama and 1% of WGS (other system) NIPTs. The chances are 95% chance everything is fine. NT san and sono will very highly tell you that things are OK. It is reasoable to ask for redraw or amnio to ensure things are ok. If sonos are normal it is reasonable to not get amnio if you do not want any final confirmation.
Natera/Panorama is a different type of a NIPT test (see main post). If fetal fractions are below 4% they give out this no results call. There are several reasons for this. Search this sub for "low fetal fraction" or "no result" and you will see all the examples come up. When this is reported, you are likely told you are at an increased risk for Trisomy 13, Trisomy 18 and Triploidy at 1/17 chances. Keep in mind that even those studies were done in high risk women so those odds are actually most likely much lower. This result is coming up in around 2-5% of all NIPT tests and you are not alone.
Here is what Natera says:
https://www.aruplab.com/files/resources/genetics/panorama/Patient%20Guide%20to%20Results.pdf
For women where a result was not provided from an initial sample, whose risks were unchanged by the FFBR algorithm, and had an informative redraw, 2.1% had a high‐risk call from the second draw. This rate is similar to the rate (1.8%) previously reported for all women referred for NIPT (Dar et al. (2014)). This observation provides additional evidence that this group of women can be counseled that their uninformative result does not measurably alter their prior age‐related risk (McKanna et al., 2019).
Since this is a "risk" for trisomy 13, 18 and triploidy - review the below about each of these which are very likely viewable on NT scan at 12 weeks. Trisomy 21 or monosomy x is NOT associated with no calls. So a normal sono at 12-14 weeks is also very much indicative that hopefully things are ok. Your risk with a normal sono at NT scan becomes extremely low since the 1/17 chance does not consider sonographic findings. It is likely that most if not all of those 1/17 would show sonographic findings as well as a no result/or low fetal fraction no result.
Lastly, if you DID get a result and still have low fetal fraction with another company who does whole genome sequencing you are likely ok since Negative predictive value of NIPT is high and it basically did not see any abnormal cells in placental debris meaning you likely are not dealing with any placental trisomy or monosomy.
NEXT STEP: REQUEST NT SCAN, REFERRAL TO MFM and GENETIC COUNSELOR IMMEDIATELY AND ALSO TRY TO REQUEST ANOTHER NIPT TESTING COMPANY THAT DOES WHOLE GENOME SEQUENCING INSTED OF SNP ALGORITHM. THIS IS ANYTHING LIKE MATERNIT21 PRENA ETC. BASICALLY ANYTHING BESIDES NATERA/PANORMA.
If they are not able to use another company, try a re-draw if sonos are normal. At times with more passing time "fetoplacental" fraction can increase and you can get a result on re-draw.
Some reasons for no results are

The reported failure rate with SNP-based NIPT was 6.4% in a series of 31 030 patients, and this was mostly due to low fetal fraction.9 The failure or non-reportable rates of NIPT was quoted as 1.9% using massive parallel sequencing and 3% with chromosome-specific sequencing.10 11 It is estimated that 2% of pregnancies between 10 and 21 weeks will have a fetal fraction of less than the required 4%.5 More than 50% of women had a successful result on redraw after the first failed sample.6 There was observed to be a mean 1% fetal cf-DNA gain in the second draw compared to the first draw, with an average interval of 3.6 weeks in between. At 11–13 weeks, the median fetal fraction in maternal plasma is 10%.5 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5174759/
  • Effect of maternal biology on the performance of NIPT
    • A small proportion of samples submitted for NIPT will not return an interpretable result. The most common reason for these ‘no call’ results is a relatively low amount of placental cfDNA in maternal blood, or low fetal fraction [fetal fraction = placental DNA/(placental DNA+ maternal DNA)]. Most NIPT assays require a minimum fetal fraction of 2%–4% for a reportable result. Any condition which increases maternal cell turnover without increasing placental cell turnover could theoretically reduce the fetal fraction and increase NIPT failure rates. While approximately half of women with a ‘no call’ result will obtain a successful NIPT result on redraw, those that do not obtain a result on repeat testing may lose the opportunity to access CFTS if their gestation has advanced past 13+6 weeks. This has important implications for pre-test counselling and choice of screening test for women at increased risk of failed NIPT.

+21 I have a Screen positive for Trisomy 21 NIPT “Down’s syndrome”

This is the most common positive result for NIPT as trisomy 21 is also the most common trisomy.
\*WHAT IS THE RISK FOR A TRUE POSITIVE FOR A + SCREEN FROM NIPT FOR TRISOMY 21*\**
TLTR: risk is based on age, PPV calculator below, if normal NT scan at 13 weeks, it could still be a true positive, if normal sono it is a bit more encouraging, can get CVS since not prone to confined placental mosaicism type3. Do not terminate after short term culture of CVS aka 1-3 day results since confined placental mosaicism type 1 aka short term culture is common.
If you had a positive screen for NIPT for Trisomy 21 there is a positive predictive value calculator to estimate the risk for actual true positive vs a false positive that can be found here:
https://www.perinatalquality.org/Vendors/NSGC/NIPT/
The risk of a true positive is directly related to female’s age during pregnancy.
  • NIPT + for 25 year old has a PPV of 50% (aka it’s a true positive only 50% of the time)
  • 30 years old PPV 61% (false positive 39%)
  • 35 years old PPV 80% (false positive 20%)
  • 40 years old PPV 93% (false positive 7%)

NEXT STEP: REQUEST NT SCAN, REFERRAL TO MFM and GENETIC COUNSELOR IMMEDIATELY
You should also have an NT scan which is a mini anatomy scan at 11-13 weeks. There are certain findings that make this result be a more likely true positive.
TRIPLE SCREEN RESULTS ABOVE\)
Here is information about pre-natal and post natal diagnosis of Trisomy 21.
https://www.aafp.org/afp/2000/0815/p825.html
Ultrasound markers commonly found in trisomy 21 (meaning none or any of these in combination or alone. A soft marker alone does not mean your baby has trisomy 21 or even several soft markers but can make it more likely to be true).
Ultrasonographic Findings Associated with Fetal Down Syndrome
  • Intrauterine growth restriction
  • Mild cerebral ventriculomegaly
  • Choroid plexus cysts
  • Increased nuchal fold thickness
  • Cystic hygromas
  • Echogenic intracardiac foci
  • Congenital heart defects
  • Increased intestinal echogenicity
  • Duodenal atresia (“double-bubble sign”)
  • Renal pelvis dilation
  • Shortened humerus and femur
  • Increased iliac wing angle
  • Incurving (clinodactyly) and hypoplasia of the fifth finger
  • Increased space between first and second toes
  • Two-vessel umbilical cord
INASIVE TESTING OF CHOICE OPTIONS:
CVS or AMNIO
CVS is most likely OK since the risk of confined placental mosaicism type 3 is extremely low in Trisomy 21 where both layers of placental would be affected but the fetus is not. Please check with your genetic counselors and MFM if they know of any of such cases.
The caveat here is that Trisomy 21 can have a correction of something called trisomy rescue. This can result in 2 options leading to a normal 2 chromosomes 1 from dad one from mom or 2 chromosomes from one parent. This is called uniparental disomy. IT happens like so.
Trisomy 21 is called a NON IMPRINTING GENE. Meaning most likely the baby ends up healthy (caveat is if the parent from which both of chromosomes come from is carrying some sort of a genetic disorder on chromosome 21 that would result in that recessive gene showing up with two copies presented and child could display that disease not at all related to trisomy 21).
This is an example of something like this where NIPT was + for trisomy 21, UPD was found, patient counseled that this is likely OK but patient terminated the pregnancy anyway. ***In case of UPD 21, no abnormal phenotype has been reported so far” below:
This also brings up an example of how a CVS isn’t as accurate since some biopsies can be normal, or affected and NIPT therefore can be more sensitive to placental mosacism because it looks at placental cell debris. So all of those cells would be shed, normal and abnormal and NIPT will detect abnormal (but you can also have CVS biopsy showing a normal result and still have confined placental mosaicism).
“Our case also demonstrated that NIPT, which studies DNA fragments coming from the whole placenta, is much more sensitive in detecting CPM then CVS, which only provide a limited sample. If the CPM were not known in the case, the NIPT result would have been considered to be a ‘false positive’ because the karyotyping of CVS was normal. Recently, Choi H, et al.6 also reported a ‘false positives’ case of NIPT for high risk of Down syndrome at first trimester due to CPM. Because CPM is probably much commoner than we believe, occurring in at least 4.8% of the term placenta,7 it is expected that more ‘false positives’ of NIPT due to CPM will be encountered when the use of NIPT becomes more widespread.
This raises a fundamental question of whether amniocentesis is a more appropriate and reliable follow up diagnostic test than CVS in case of positive NIPT, especially if there is absence of sonographic features in the fetus suggestive of trisomy”
“In three of the four placenta biopsies, the QF-PCR showed trisomy 21 but karyotyping after long-term culture was normal. This is typical of type 1 CPM,4 in which the trisomic cells are confined to the trophoblasts. This type of CPM is usually considered to be associated with a normal fetal outcome. “
Usually Trisomy 21 has no CPM3.
  • Examples of false positive / true positives
https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-015-0569-
y/tables/1
  • Stories in our sub / False positive
https://www.reddit.com/NIPT/comments/fennot/my_trisomy_21_nipt_false_positive_story_natera/
https://www.reddit.com/NIPT/comments/ip7rwg/false_positive_t21_at_12_weeks/
True positive
https://www.reddit.com/NIPT/comments/fehe8k/amino_confirmed_nipt_findings/


+18 I have a screen positive NIPT FOR TRISOMY 18 “Edward’s Syndrome”

**WHAT IS THE RISK FOR A TRUE POSITIVE FOR A + SCREEN FROM NIPT FOR TRISOMY 18*\*
TLTR: risk is based on age, PPV calculator below, if normal NT scan at 13 weeks, likely a good outcome, wait for amnio if normal sono, CVS is sono is abnormal. Prone to confined placental mosaicm type 1,2 and 3.
If you had a positive screen for NIPT for Trisomy 18 there is a positive predictive value calculator to estimate the risk for actual true positive vs a false positive that can be found here:
https://www.perinatalquality.org/Vendors/NSGC/NIPT/
The risk of a true positive is directly related to female’s age during pregnancy. These are MUCH LOWER true positives than NIPT screen positive for trisomy 21.
  • NIPT + for 25 year old has a PPV of 15% (aka it’s a true positive only 15% of the time… false positive rate for 25 year old NIPT positive with t18 is 85%)
  • 30 years old PPV 21% (false positive 79%)
  • 35 years old PPV 40% (false positive 60%)
  • 40 years old PPV 70% (false positive 30%)
NEXT STEP: REQUEST NT SCAN, REFERRAL TO MFM and GENETIC COUNSELOR IMMEDIATELY
Trisomy 18 is usually visible by week 13 so during your NT scan abut 93-97% of the time. This makes a normal sono/normal NT scan a very likely case for a false positive. IN THIS CASE DO NOT HAVE A CVS. More info below on that. Blood work for triple screen above, low pappa, low hcg and nigh NT are typical.
Sonographic evidence of trisomy 18:
Trisomy 18 fetuses can have multiple anomalies in multiple systems. Over 130 features have been reported. Out of the three main trisomies, this trisomy has the highest incidence of major structural anomalies. https://radiopaedia.org/articles/edwards-syndrome-1?lang=us
In trisomy 18 the features may include agenesis of the corpus callosum, meningomyelocele, ventriculomegaly, chorioid plexus cysts, posterior fossa anomalies, cleft lip and palate, micrognathia, low-set ears, microphtalmia, hypertelorism, short radial ray, clenched hands with overriding index fingers, club or rocker bottom feet, omphalocele, diaphragmatic hernia, renal anomalies, cardiac defects, SUA, polyhydramnios, nuchal thickening or hygroma and cryptorchidism
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4286865/
Of 98 fetuses with trisomy 18, 95 (97%) were detected sonographically; an anomaly was found in 92 (94%). A biometric measurement below the fifth percentile was noted in 50 (51%). Cardiac (63%) and central nervous system (34%) anomalies were most frequently detected. Although choroid plexus cysts were commonly seen, no fetuses with trisomy 18 and isolated choroid plexus cysts were found. Conclusions. Targeted sonography identified abnormal fetal anatomy or abnormal biometric findings in 97% of fetuses with trisomy 18 in the second trimester. A biometric measurement below the fifth percentile was noted in half of the cases in the second trimester. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.7863/jum.2008.27.7.1033
CONFINED PLACENTAL MOSAICISM IN TRISOMY 18 and NEED FOR AMNIO IN SONOGRAPHICALLY NORMAL FETUSES
Trisomy 13 and 18 are prone to something called confined placental mosaicism type 3 which affects all placental layers but does not affect the fetus. So in fact; the CVS can be 100% positive for trisomy 13 and 18 and the actual fetus is not affected. See the above graphic at the beginning.
This is one of the reasons I started this sub so that no other person goes wrongful termination or receives proper counseling about this or has seen the data. With a normal sono, it’s absolutely prudent that people are counseled on this scenario so that they can elect an amnio to be absolutely sure. CVS is a great option to confirm sonographic findings as, again, over 95% of trisomy 18 fetuses have visible abnormalities by week 13 with many of the above features. It is absolutely reasonable to get a CVS for confirmation of sonographically abnormal NIPT positive trisomy 18 result. IF NIPT is positive but the sono shows a normal fetus, PAUSE. And do more research, get a really good genetic counselor on board that will recommend an amnio instead. CPM type 3 in trisomy 18 and 13 has extremely good outcomes for live birth and usually doesn’t affect development of the fetus even though all placental cells are abnormal. There is some correlation with IUGR and trisomy 13 in placenta.
This is not usually the case for trisomy 21 and CPM1 is more common but CPM3 is extremely rare which is why cvs on t21 nIPT is much more reasonable with the long term culture as the inner layer of the placenta typically matches the fetus. This is not always the case for t13 and t18. Some MFMs will therefore take t21 cvs data and apply it all other chromosomes since other chromosomes are actually rare to see in general, but there are a lot of t21 cases. All these chromosomes are different about how they present, what the differences, how they correct self in fetal development and how CPM can interact with fetal growth or progression.
Please also note comments re-CVS and NIPT in the t21 example. You would need multiple placental biopsies to rule one thing or another out, vs taking out an amnio sample is definitive since there should be no abnormal cells shed in to the fluid. Placental biopsies can show completely different results when multiple biopsies taken after birth or post mortem. Examples of this can be provided or will be posted below as well.
I truly hope that anyone reading in the future can and does look at the above papers about sonos and t13 and t18 nIPT, understands PPV, understands what cvs can and can’t do, why waiting for amnio may be a better option and understands what their options are.
This is also a great example of how ultrasound and NT scan is obviously useful in trisomy 13, 18 presentations. Basically all trisomy 13 cases were seen on NT scan and 2/30 looked normal on NT scan with trisomy 18 but at 18 weeks showed the abnormalities. All false positive cases had normal NT scans and normal anatomy scans. https://obgyn.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/uog.13388
The role of ultrasound in women with a positive NIPT result for trisomy 18 and 13
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1028455919302177
"There were 81 patients with a positive NIPT result for trisomy 18/13, including 39 (30 positive for trisomy 18; 9 positive for trisomy 13) within 12–14 weeks of gestation, and 42 (31 positive for trisomy 18; 11 positive for trisomy 13) within 15–22 weeks. The PPV of NIPT was 60.7% for trisomy 18, and 30% for trisomy 13, respectively. When adding ultrasound to NIPT, the new PPV for trisomy 18 was 100%, and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 92.3%, with a NPV of 85.7% in the first trimester and a NPV of 100% in the second trimester, respectively. The new PPV and NPV for trisomy 13 were 100% and 100%, respectively."
Examples of false positive / true positives
https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-015-0569-y/tables/1
false positive case study
https://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Abstract/2017/05001/Confined_Placental_Trisomy_18_Mosaicism_Detected.492.aspx
In the sub: false positive examples
https://www.reddit.com/NIPT/comments/gt544e/little_chulzlette_and_the_reason_i_started_this/
https://www.reddit.com/NIPT/comments/ecl5zq/my_experience_with_a_false_positive_t18_nipt/


+13 I have a screen positive NIPT FOR TRISOMY 13 “Patau Syndrome"

**WHAT IS THE RISK FOR A TRUE POSITIVE FOR A + SCREEN FROM NIPT FOR TRISOMY 13*\*
TLTR: risk is based on age and overall true positives are rare, PPV calculator below, if normal NT scan at 13 weeks, likely a good outcome, wait for amnio if normal sono, it is almost certain you are dealing with confined placental mosaicism, CVS if sono is abnormal to confirm. Very visible on NT scans. Prone to confined placental mosaicm type 1 and 3 and CAN be associated with precclampsia or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
If you had a positive screen for NIPT for Trisomy 13 there is a positive predictive value calculator to estimate the risk for actual true positive vs a false positive that can be found here:
https://www.perinatalquality.org/Vendors/NSGC/NIPT/
The risk of a true positive is directly related to female’s age during pregnancy. These are MUCH LOWER true positives than NIPT screen positive for trisomy 21.
  • NIPT + for 25 year old has a PPV of 7% (aka it’s a true positive only 7% of the time… false positive rate for 25 year old NIPT positive with t18 is 93%)
  • 30 years old PPV 10% (false positive 90%)
  • 35 years old PPV 20% (false positive 80%)
  • 40 years old PPV 50% (false positive 50%)
  • Bloodwork and NT screen: NT usually enlarged, pappa and HCG are LOW
NEXT STEP: REQUEST NT SCAN, REFERRAL TO MFM and GENETIC COUNSELOR IMMEDIATELY
Trisomy 18 is usually visible by week 13 so during your NT scan abut 93-97% of the time. This makes a normal sono/normal NT scan a very likely case for a false positive. IN THIS CASE DO NOT HAVE A CVS. More info below on that. Blood work for triple screen above, low pappa, low hcg and nigh NT are typical.
Sonographic evidence of trisomy 13.
https://radiopaedia.org/articles/patau-syndrome?lang=us
"Given the unfavorable balance between benefit and harm related to using NIPT to test for T13, we suggest reconsidering its use, especially in a general population. Owing to the issue of confined placental mosaicism, chorionic villus sampling is not recommended. Almost all T13 cases are associated with multiple anomalies that are hard to miss on detailed ultrasound examination. Papageorghiou et al. described that > 90% of T13 cases are identified at the 11–14‐week scan10.
In conclusion, screening for diseases that are lethal in the fetal or early neonatal period, at the expense of serious anxiety and iatrogenic miscarriage of healthy fetuses, may do more harm than good. In our view, a patient with a positive NIPT result for T13 and a completely normal detailed ultrasound examination should be reassured that invasive testing is unnecessary."
https://obgyn.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/uog.13388
Highly inaccurate for NIPT as far as fetal involvement.

  • CPM in trisomy 13 can be associated with hypertensive disorders
    • https://europepmc.org/article/PMC/5944320
    • We present a case series of six women with a cfDNA results screen positive for trisomy 13, who subsequently were found to have normal karyotypes or normal neonatal outcome. Four out of the five women (80%) for whom delivery information was available went on to develop gestational hypertensive disorders, one of which was severe and required preterm delivery. https://ndownloader.figstatic.com/files/11073932
    • Note here that there are many cases of of fully abnormal CVS with normal fetuses
submitted by chulzle to NIPT [link] [comments]


2020.09.15 18:42 jbuddy_13 [Q] MCMC approach to variational inference?

To satisfy my own curiosity, I built a metropolis Hastings sampler that can perform Bayesian linear regression. In particular, it returns a 2D posterior of B0 and B1. I’ve used both uniform priors (likelihood *1) and I’ve used actual priors. Regardless, it works, so yay!
One big assumption I made was that I could set sigma, the error in ~N(mu = y(i), sigma=1) to always be 1. So the likelihood is simply the product of all likelihoods, where each input to the likelihood is B0 + B1*x(i). Assuming a constant variance, doesn’t negatively affect convergence on B0 and B1, since MH makes movements based on ratios of likelihoods.
Some friendly internet stranger recommended that I include sigma as a parameter for 3D estimation. This is when things fell apart:
  1. Even slight changes to sigma resulted in failures to accept proposed movements. I tried updating variables simultaneously and individually. MH simply got stuck at an arbitrary observation and never moved again.
  2. Sigma is only positively defined, so I needed a way to ensure that (A) it can propose increases AND decreases, and (B) it was never <=0. I ended up using a uniform distribution and taking the absolute value of current sigma and some sampled noise so abs(0.15- 0.25) -> 0.1. This is probably a poor design method.
  3. Lastly, I thought of a clever idea, which failed. I used MH to estimate B0 and B1 then used their estimates to in another MH sampler to estimate sigma. (In other words B0 and B1 were held as constants in 1D posterior on sigma.) What happened was shrinks in sigma caused higher and higher likelihoods. So MH converged on 0.
Note, my actual data had an error of 1.5, a B1 of 2 and a B0 of 1. I simulated this data in python. Will link to code upon request.
Okay, time for questions!
  1. Did I stumble upon a known pitfall for MCMC methods? (Maybe something smarter like HMC would help, maybe not.)
  2. How should I propose movements to sigma? (I get the feeling that the absolute value idea was bad.)
  3. Anything else you’d like to add?
Cheers!
EDIT: link to code code
submitted by jbuddy_13 to statistics [link] [comments]


2020.09.14 01:28 josealves12 Autoconsumo recebe apoios até 70% com limite 2500 euros para instalação de paineis solares fotovoltaicos.

Autoconsumo recebe apoios até 70% com limite 2500 euros para instalação de paineis solares fotovoltaicos.
Governo lança programa para Reabilitar e tornar os edifícios construido até 2006 energeticamente mais eficientes.
https://greenpower.pt/apoio-a-instalacao-de-paineis-solares/
De acordo com o ministro do ambiente, João Pedro Matos Fernandes o será possível “comparticipar até 70% estas intervenções, com limites máximos para a Instalação de painéis fotovoltaicos para produção de energia renovável para autoconsumo, até 2500 euros;Os Documentos necessários à candidatura são os seguintes:
i) Cópia da caderneta predial urbana atualizada do edifício ou fração candidata, onde conste expressamente que o edifício ou a fração autónoma é propriedade do beneficiário;
ii) Licença de habitação;
iii) Recibo(s) com data posterior a 7 de setembro de 2020, em nome do candidato, com todas as despesas discriminadas, em conjunto com os documentos obrigatórios;
iv) Evidência fotográfica da habitação alvo de intervenção e dos equipamentos, antes e após a implementação dos projetos candidatos;
v) Certificado do técnico instalador reconhecido pela DGEG para instalação de sistemas solares fotovoltaicos;
A instalação destes equipamentos tem de ser efetuada por empresa com alvará e por técnicos instaladores com certificado reconhecido pela DGEG para instalação de sistemas solares fotovoltaicos.

https://preview.redd.it/sztr2ca720n51.png?width=1920&format=png&auto=webp&s=89961605ebb43d8878bd1c7658b6a703ec1ab96d
submitted by josealves12 to u/josealves12 [link] [comments]


2020.09.08 07:23 potatoey2 Why do nearly all scientists believe NDEs are a physiological phenomenon?

Here is a good example of this. J Long article has 2 citations while a typical NDE article explaining how NDE are completely physiological phenomenon has 150. There's also many thousands of articles on NDE and almost every single one treats them as a purely physiological phenomenon.
Here's the proof:
J Long Article suggesting the reality of nde shows 2 Citations: https://www.google.com/search?q=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov%2Fpmc%2Farticles%2FPMC6172100%2F
Article Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6172100/

Typical article on why nde's are a physiological phenomenon shows 150 Citations: https://www.google.com/search?q=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.pnas.org%2Fcontent%2F110%2F35%2F14432.short
Article Link: https://www.pnas.org/content/110/35/14432.short

Reading the PNAS article it is interesting though that data shows that mammalian brains do show heightened conscious processing at near-death which completely blows the theory that the brain shuts off at cardiac arrest.

[quote=https://www.pnas.org/content/110/35/14432.short] We identified a transient surge of synchronous gamma oscillations that occurred within the first 30 s after cardiac arrest and preceded isoelectric electroencephalogram. Gamma oscillations during cardiac arrest were global and highly coherent; moreover, this frequency band exhibited a striking increase in anterior–posterior-directed connectivity and tight phase-coupling to both theta and alpha waves. High-frequency neurophysiological activity in the near-death state exceeded levels found during the conscious waking state. These data demonstrate that the mammalian brain can, albeit paradoxically, generate neural correlates of heightened conscious processing at near-death.
[/quote]
submitted by potatoey2 to NDE [link] [comments]


2020.09.02 12:53 majinmattossj2 Brazilian Big12 series, Episode 8/12: Corinthians

Previous episodes: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional
In this series I will present each of the 12 Brazilian teams that together compose the "Big 12". My point is to make them more knowledgeable to you, since each one of these teams have their share of the Brazil national team success and of Brazilian club football accomplishments as a whole. I'll try to be as smooth, efficient and non-boring as I can. If the feedback is positive, I'll keep bringing more to this series. So ok, let's do this!
Method: I'll present the teams in a chronological order, from the oldest foundation (Flamengo-1895) to the latest one (São Paulo-1930). The order will be: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro, São Paulo. How many of these have you heard of?
Extra clubs: Due to a high number of requests, I'll also present 3 teams who don't belong to the Big12, but are also considered big clubs in Brazil: Bahia, Athletico Paranaense and Coritiba. Welcome to the club!
Geographical reference: Before we start, I'd like to ask something very simple from you. I want you to keep in mind that these 12 teams are spread in 4 different States in Brazil. The club's State name is written below, next to the club's name. It has a direct link to Google Maps, so that you can check it out to make this experience more accurate.

Episode 8/12: Corinthians (State: São Paulo), founded in 1910

State rivals: Palmeiras, São Paulo, Santos

Stadium: Arena Corinthians / Pacaembu (Old)

Mascot: Musketeer

Major achievements: 2 Club World Cup (2000, 2012), 1 Copa Libertadores (2012), 7 Brazilian Leagues (1990, 1998, 1999, 2005, 2011, 2015, 2017), 3 Copa do Brasil (1995, 2002, 2009)

State League titles: 30 (Against Palmeiras' 23, Santos' 22, São Paulo's 21)

PLAY AND LISTEN TO CORINTHIANS ANTHEM WHILE READING - Click here
The kings of São Paulo and the team of the people (1910-1954)
Corinthians was founded in 1910 by a group of factory workers in São Paulo, inspired by Corinthian FC, an English team that was going on an excursion in Brazil. From the first moment of Corinthians foundation, their president stated that they would be the "team of the people, and that the people would make the team". It was a manifest against the aristocratic trend of only allowing rich and white people into football clubs.
In Brazilian football early days, there wasn't a national league until 1959, so the teams would play inside their own state, in the State Leagues. In this São Paulo State League Era, Corinthians rose from nothing to become the most victorious team inside the state, with 15 titles, notably leaving behind their rivals Palmeiras (12), São Paulo (8), Santos (4), and also traditional teams from the amateur era such as Paulistano (11). If there was a national league in this period, Corinthians would certainly be a serious title contender, along with Fluminense (from Rio de Janeiro state league) and their archrival, Palmeiras.
Highlights to Corinthians early-1950s decade, when they won 2 State Leagues (1951, 1952), 3 Rio-São Paulo Tournament (1950, 1953, 1954) and 1 Pequeña Copa del Mundo in Venezuela (1953).
Tournament Champion Runner-up 3rd place
1950 Rio-São Paulo* Corinthians Vasco Portuguesa
1951 São Paulo State League Corinthians Palmeiras Portuguesa
1952 São Paulo State League Corinthians São Paulo Portuguesa
1953 Rio-São Paulo* Corinthians Vasco São Paulo
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians Roma (Italy) Barcelona (Spain)
1954 Rio-São Paulo Corinthians Fluminense Palmeiras
Corinthians notably won, undefeated, the 1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo against Roma (Italy), Barcelona (Spain) and Caracas (Venezuela). Barcelona, of the Hungarian star Kubala, were the current Spanish and Latin Cup champions; Roma, 6th placed in the Serie A; and Caracas, the home guests. Corinthians won their 6 matches, as you can see below. The topscorers were Luizinho (Corinthians) and Kubala (Barcelona) with 5 goals each.
Tournament Match Goals
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 1-0 Roma (Italy) Luizinho (1)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 3-2 Barcelona (Spain) Luizinho (2), Kubala (1), Moreno (1), Carbone (1)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 2-1 Caracas (Venezuela) Cláudio (1), Carbone (1), Aguirre (1)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 1-0 Barcelona (Spain) Goiano (1)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 2-0 Caracas (Venezuela) Cláudio (2)
1953 Pequeña Copa del Mundo Corinthians 3-1 Roma (Italy) Luizinho (2), Cláudio (1), Galle (1)
Later in 1958, Corinthians provided the Brazilian National Team with two players in the World Cup title campaign, notably the legendary goalkeeper Gylmar, starter in 1958 and 1962. He played 395 matches for Corinthians, before moving to Santos in 1961.
1954-1977: the drought and the Rivellino Era
In this period, Corinthians went through their longest title drought of their history, without winning a single trophy. Technically, they won the 1966 Rio-São Paulo Tournament, but it had to be shared with 3 other teams due to a lack of dates to end it.
Between 1965 and 1974, Rivellino (born 1946), a creation of Corinthians youth system, was the team's main star. He played 474 matches for Corinthians, scoring 141 goals, and represented his club in the 1970 and 1974 World Cups. He never managed to win the then prestigious State League title, or even the National League, reaching the State League final just once, in 1974, losing to their archrival Palmeiras. He was "found guilty" of losing the final and was released from the club, sold to Fluminense. You can see some of Rivellino magical skills in this amazing skills-only video (3mn08s video).
In this difficult era, Corinthians also counted with legendary star Garrincha in 1966. However, his form was already declining at the age of 32, and he only appeared in 13 matches, scoring 2 goals.
Curiously enough, Pelé played professionaly from 1956 to 1977, almost the exact time Corinthians went trophyless. When Pelé began to shine in football, he used to say that he was rejected in a Corinthians trial in 1954, and therefore cursed that "while I (Pelé) play football, Corinthians will never be champions again". Pelé retired on the 1st of October 1977, and 12 days later, on the 13th October 1977, Corinthians 23-year title drought was over, as they won the 1977 São Paulo State League, 1-0 against Ponte Preta, with a goal from Basilio, at minute 81.
1976: The Corinthians Invasion
A year before Corinthians drought was over, one of the biggest events in the history of Brazilian football took place, the Invasão Corinthiana. The 5th of December 1976, a one-match-only Brazilian League semi-final would happen in Rio de Janeiro, between the home guests Fluminense (of Rivellino, who left Corinthians in 1974) and Corinthians, from São Paulo, 450km away from Rio.
The hype was intense. Fluminense were the frank favorites: 10 of their starting 11 had already been capped to the Brazil NT, they were called the Tricolor Machine.
The Maracanã 146.000 capacity would be split half-half. 70.000 tickets were given to Corinthians by Fluminense, and they were sold out in less than 3 hours. Tens of thousands of Corinthianos started moving from São Paulo to Rio de Janeiro 2 days before the match: by airplane, bus, car, motorcycle, bike, taxi, it didn't matter, the Rio-São Paulo highway was dominated by Corinthians supporters (pic). On Saturday 4th, one day before the match, the city and the Copacabana beach of Rio de Janeiro became a huge Corinthianos party. Hundreds and hundreds of black and white flags and shirts all over the city.
On the day of the match, the atmosphere inside the Maracanã was INTENSE (5mn video). More than ever, Corinthians needed to end that title drought. Inexplicably, Corinthians fanbase had their biggest growth during the 60s/70s title drought. That's why they say that only the Corinthians supporters know what it's like to be a Corinthiano, that's why they nicknamed themselves "the Sufferers". Because they are the legitimate team of the people.
The match started under a moderate rain, and the pitch wasn't at its best. Fluminense opened the score at '29, with this goal from Pintinho. Corinthians needed at least a goal to go to extratime, and found it at '29 with Russo, after a corner kick. The rain intensified, and the pitch turned into this horrible mud. Not much happened afterwards, and the match went to the penalty kicks. Corinthians GK Tobias saved Fluminense's 1st and 2nd p.k., while Corinthians scored all their 3 penalties, and Fluminense only 1 out of 3. Zé Maria then scored Corinthians 4th penalty and qualified his team to the 1976 Brazilian League final.
However, Corinthians lost the final 0-2 to Falcão's Internacional, playing away. But the epic Invasão Corinthiana of Rio de Janeiro would be forever remembered in the Brazilian football history - this very good 46mn documentary comes back to 1976 and also shows the 2000 (Rio de Janeiro) and 2012 (Japan) Club World Cup posterior invasions.
1977: the State League title and the end of the drought
In 1977, Corinthians 23-year title drought finally came to an end, after they won the State League title. They played 48 matches, with 30W-6D-12L, cumulating 55% of the points. In the big final, they beat Ponte Preta 1-0, with Basílio scoring this eternal goal at '81.
It was Corinthians' 16th State League title, while their rivals had 18 (Palmeiras), 13 (Santos) and 11 (São Paulo) at that point. So, even without winning a State League title for 23 years, Corinthians was still fighting for São Paulo state title record.
1982-84: Socrates and the Corinthians Democracy
In the middle of the Brazilian military dictatorship, Corinthians chose to wave a flag in favor of democracy. It all began in April 1982, with the nomination of a sociologist, Adilson, to the football director job. Adilson liked to listen to the players, and along with politicized players such as Sócrates, Wladimir, Casagrande and Zenon, decided to establish an innovative democracy inside the club.
Basically, every decision (contracts, inside rules, etc) that was to be taken would be decided by voting. From the president to the average worker, all had the same right to vote, and the same vote weight. For example, thanks to this voting system, married players didn't need to sleep in hotels before matches with the rest of the team anymore. They would also use the Corinthians kit to spread political opinions in favor of democracy--such as the sayings "Diretas Já" ("Direct voting Now") and "Eu quero votar para presidente" ("I want to vote for president").
In April 1984, the Amendment Proposal For Direct Voting was rejected by the Chamber of Deputies, which collaborated to the departure of Sócrates to the Italian Serie A (Fiorentina), and to the end of the Corinthians Democracy. This talented generation won the São Paulo State Leagues of 1982 and 1983, and reached the 1982 and 1984 Brazilian League semi-finals.
This notable team provided the charming Brazil of 1982 (5mn46s video) with Sócrates, who played 265 matches for Corinthians, scoring 172 goals between 1978 and 1984.
1990: the first Brazilian League title
After winning the 1988 State League title, Corinthians won their first Brazilian League title in 1990. Led by midfielder Neto to the knock-out stages, Corinthians defeated Atlético Mineiro in the quarter-finals. In the 1st leg, they did a 2-1 comeback, with both goals from Neto: the first with a header and the second shooting from inside the box. In the 2nd leg, a 0-0 tie put Corinthians in the semi-final stage against Bahia.
In the 1st leg of the semis, Bahia opened the scored, but Corinthians tied with an own goal. Neto scored the 2nd goal with his trademark style, the free-kick. In the 2nd leg, a 0-0 tie was enough to put Corinthians in the final.
In the final, a derby between Corinthians and the São Paulo of Zetti, Cafu, Leonardo, Raí and the coach Telê Santana (former 1982 Brazil coach).
In the 1st leg, Wilson Mano scored the only goal of the match at '4. Fabinho (Corinthians) almost scored the 2nd after this brilliant run and conclusion, saved by Zetti, and Ronaldo (Corinthians GK), fantastic as always, kept Corinthians goal secured with great saves. In the final 2nd leg, Corinthians scored the only goal of the match at '54, after a great one-two between Fabinho and Tupãzinho, with the latter scoring the goal, and securing Corinthians first Brazilian League title.
Ronaldo (GK) and Marcelo Djian (CB) were both elected to the League's Best XI.
Corinthians kept the good shape and won 2 more State Leagues (1995, 1997) and 1 Copa do Brasil undefeated (1995), as well as 2nd place in the 1994 Brazilian League, with a new generation led by Viola and their eventual big idol, Marcelinho Carioca.
1998-2000: National legacy, champions of the World and the Copa Libertadores trauma
Tournament Champion Runner-up 3rd place 4th place
1998 Brazilian League Corinthians Cruzeiro Santos Portuguesa
1999 State League Corinthians Palmeiras Santos São Paulo
1999 Brazilian League Corinthians Atlético Mineiro Vitória São Paulo
2000 Club World Cup Corinthians Vasco Necaxa (Mexico) Real Madrid (Spain)
Vampeta, Rincón, Marcelinho and Ricardinho. The high-level of this midfield make the hearing of their names sound like poetry. The best Corinthians of all-time counted with other monsters such as GK Dida, Paraguayan CB Gamarra, LB Kléber, and the FW duo Luizão and Edílson. 5 of these guys were with the Brazil NT in the 2002 World Cup.
In this period, Corinthians won the 1998 and 1999 Brazilian Leagues, the 2000 Club World Cup and the 1999 São Paulo State League.
Luxemburgo (eventual Real Madrid coach) was the man behind the creation of this superteam. In the 1998 Brazilian League, Corinthians qualified to the knock-out stages with the best campaign. They first sent Grêmio home in the quarter-finals; and then Santos in the semi-finals, after three exciting matches (4mn51s video) and this fine and decisive goal by Edilson at '57 of the 3rd semi-final match.
In the big final against Cruzeiro, Corinthians started badly on the 1st match (away), losing 0-2 at half-time, but recovered greatly with two goals and left with a 2-2 tie. The 2nd leg, at home, was a 1-1 tie, with Corinthians opening the score and Cruzeiro equalizing later. In the 3rd final match, at home, Corinthians won by 2-0, with the first goal by Edilson at '70 and the second goal by Marcelinho Carioca at '80. For the 2nd time, Corinthians were crowned Brazilian champions. Gamarra and Vampeta were elected to the League's Best XI, while Edílson won the Golden Ball and Marcelinho Carioca was the team's topscorer with 19 goals in 28 matches. Their coach Luxemburgo left Corinthians to command the Brazil NT, appointing his auxiliary Oswaldo de Oliveira as the new coach.
Corinthians 1999 season was a hell of a rollercoaster. Qualified to the big dream, the Copa Libertadores, the team was the same as 1998, and had the arrival of Dida and Luizão.
In May 1999, Corinthians were knocked-off of the Copa Libertadores quarter-finals by their archrival Palmeiras, 2-4 on the penalties, after two evenly derbies (0-2, 2-0).
Weeks later, in June 1999, Corinthians and Palmeiras, again, disputed the final of the State League. Corinthians won the 1st derby 3-0. At minute 75 of the 2nd leg, with 2-2 in the score and Corinthians' title secured, Corinthians' winger Edílson performed the biggest provocation in the history of Brazilian football, by doing kick-ups with the ball, provoking this huge, epic and funny struggle. The match ended, and Corinthians were crowned State champions.
At the end of the season, Corinthians dominated the 1999 Brazilian League. In the K.O stage, they beat Guarani in the quarter-finals, and then their city rival São Paulo in the semis (3-2, 2-1), after Dida epically saved two penalties from São Paulo idol Raí (former PSG): the first on his left side at '52, and the second on his right side at '92. Corinthians then won the 2nd leg 2-1 and qualified to the finals.
They would face Atlético Mineiro, and lost the 1st leg (away) 2-3. At home in the 2nd leg, Corinthians beat them 2-0 with 2 goals from Luizão, the first at '28 from a header, and the second at '59 from inside the box. The 3rd leg was an electrifying 0-0 tie, and Corinthians were declared back-to-back Brazilian League champions.
Dida, Rincón and Vampeta were elected to the League's Best XI, Marcelinho Carioca won the Golden Ball, and Luizão was the team's topscorer with 21 goals in 25 matches.
The 2000 FIFA Club World Cup title
In 2000, took place in Brazil the first edition of the Club World Cup, and Corinthians qualified as Brazilian champions.
Group A Points Goal difference
Corinthians 7 +4
Real Madrid (Spain) 7 +3
Al-Nassr (Saudi Arabia) 3 -3
Raja Casablanca (Morocco) 0 -4
Group B Points Goal difference
Vasco 9 +5
Necaxa (Mexico) 4 +1
Manchester United (England) 4 0
South Melbourne (Australia) 0 -6
Before Real Madrid's match against Corinthians, the French centre-back Karembeu said he didn't know who Edilson (Corinthians number 10) was. In the match, Edilson humiliated him with this dismantling and shameful nutmeg, before scoring this painting of a goal. The match ended 2-2, with Edílson also scoring the other Corinthians goal.
This beautiful image is perfect to describe Karembeu's humiliating moment.
Corinthians would proceed to play against Vasco in the big final. 70.000 Corinthianos invaded Rio de Janeiro just like in 1976, expecting a great match against Vasco's dream team that had Romário, Edmundo and Juninho Pernambucano. After a 0-0 tie, it went to the penalties. Dida saved Gilberto's shot, and Marcelino Carioca only needed to score to end it, but he missed it. However, Edmundo lost Vasco's last penalty, and Corinthians were crowned Club World champions.
However, later that year, Corinthians met their archrivals Palmeiras once again in the Copa Libertadores, now in the semi-finals. After two crazy evenly derbies (4-3, 2-3), it went to the penalties, just like in 1999. And Marcelinho lost his one, getting Corinthians out of the tournament, and beginning a huge frustration and trauma of the Corinthianos for not having a continental title, while all their state rivals (Palmeiras, São Paulo and Santos) had.
2001-2010: Carlitos Tévez, the 2007 relegation, Ronaldo Nazário's last dance, and the Copa Libertadores trauma
The 2000s was a crazy decade for Corinthians.
They won 3 State League titles (2001, 2003, 2009), 1 Brazilian League (2005), 2 Copa do Brasil (2002, 2009) and 1 Rio-São Paulo (2002). But they were also relegated to the Brazilian League Serie B in 2007.
Highlights to their Galáticos 2005 team, led by Argentine stars Tévez and Mascherano, as well as Carlos Alberto (former Porto) and Nilmar (eventual Villareal), who together won the 2005 Brazilian League.
After their relegation to Serie B in 2007, the club rebuilt greatly under the president Andrés Sanchez.
He brought the legend Ronaldo Nazário in 2009, who led Corinthians to the 2009 State League title against Neymar's Santos and to the 2009 Copa do Brasil title against Internacional. Ronaldo scored 35 goals in 69 matches, with great highlights, notably this last-minute goal on his 1st match in a derby against Palmeiras and also this goal against Santos in the 2009 State League final. He was joined by left-back Roberto Carlos in 2010, before retiring in 2011.
But the Copa Libertadores trauma was still alive. The 30 million Corinthianos couldn't live with the jokes and suffering for not having a continental title.
Year Stage Knocked-out by
1977 Copa Libertadores Group Stage Internacional
1991 Copa Libertadores Round of 16 Boca Juniors (Argentina)
1996 Copa Libertadores Quarter-finals Grêmio
1999 Copa Libertadores Quarter-finals Palmeiras
2000 Copa Libertadores Semi-finals Palmeiras
2003 Copa Libertadores Round of 16 River Plate (Argentina)
2006 Copa Libertadores Round of 16 River Plate (Argentina)
2010 Copa Libertadores Round of 16 Flamengo
2011 Copa Libertadores Preliminary Round Tolima (Colombia)
But after the 2011 elimination, a new era began.
Corinthians 2011-2012: National, Continental and World champions, the dream came true
The coach Tite almost lost his job after the ridiculous defeat to Tolima. But he stayed and focused on the 2011 Brazilian League.
Corinthians dominated the league, leading it for 27 rounds (out of 38). On the last round, they tied 0-0 against Palmeiras and secured their 5th Brazilian League title. However, sadly on this same day, the old idol Sócrates passed away, at the age of 57.
Corinthians had thus qualified to the 2012 Copa Libertadores, which they would brilliantly win undefeated (8W-6D), as well as their 2nd FIFA Club World Cup title.
Tournament Stage Match Goals
2012 Libertadores GS 1-1 Táchira (VEN) Ralf
2012 Libertadores GS 2-0 Nacional (PAR) Danilo, Jorge Henrique
2012 Libertadores GS 0-0 Cruz Azul (MEX) -
2012 Libertadores GS 1-0 Cruz Azul (MEX) Danilo
2012 Libertadores GS 3-1 Nacional (PAR) Jorge Henrique, Sheik, Elton
2012 Libertadores GS 6-0 Táchira (VEN) Danilo, Paulinho, Jorge Henrique, Sheik, Liédson, Douglas
2012 Libertadores Ro16 0-0 Emelec (ECU) -
2012 Libertadores Ro16 3-0 Emelec (ECU) Fábio Santos, Paulinho, Alex
2012 Libertadores QF 0-0 Vasco -
2012 Libertadores QF 1-0 Vasco Paulinho
2012 Libertadores SF 1-0 Santos Sheik
2012 Libertadores SF 1-1 Santos Danilo
2012 Libertadores Final 1-1 Boca Juniors (ARG) Romarinho
2012 Libertadores Final 2-0 Boca Juniors (ARG) Sheik (2x)
2012 Club World Cup SF 1-0 Al-Ahly (EGY) Guerrero
2012 Club World Cup Final 1-0 Chelsea (ENG) Guerrero
Corinthians topped their group stage, placing 2nd overall in the cup. In the round of 16 they met Emelec (Ecuador), and held a 0-0 tie away in the 1st leg, before beating them 3-0 at home in the 2nd leg without much problems, except this dangerous chance and this ball in the post in Ecuador.
In the quarter-finals, the adversary was the Brazilian team, Vasco. The 1st leg was in Rio de Janeiro, a 0-0 tie, with this only big chance in Corinthians' favor. In the 2nd leg, Corinthians were pressing Vasco a lot, until the minute 62, when Vasco forward Diego Souza threw this incredible opportunity away. Had he scored, Corinthians would need 2 goals in 30 minutes. Corinthians kept pressing, until Paulinho scored the winning goal at '87.
In the semi-finals, the current Copa Libertadores champions, Santos, with Neymar, Ganso, Elano & co., would be a tough opponent. But, playing away, Corinthians' Sheik opened the score at '27 with this nice goal. Cássio made this good defense at '57, and this other one at '80. In the 2nd leg, Neymar opened the score for Santos at '35, but Danilo scored for Corinthians at '47, as the match ended 1-1, with Corinthians qualified to their 1st Copa Libertadores final.
In the big final against Riquelme's Boca Juniors (Argentina), who were chasing their 7th title, Corinthians would play the first match in Argentina. Boca opened the score at '72, but Romarinho equalized at '84, after Paulinho took the ball from Riquelme. Boca still had time to hit the post at '90. In the 2nd leg in São Paulo, Sheik opened the score at '53 and scored the 2nd at '71, after a juvenile mistake by Boca. At '92 the match was over, and Corinthians were crowned Copa Libertadores champions for the first time, and undefeated.
2012 Club World Cup - Corinthians 1-0 Chelsea
After beating Al-Ahly (Egypt) 1-0 in the semis, with this goal from Paolo Guerrero, Corinthians was ready to face Chelsea, the European champions, in the final. 30.000 Corinthianos invaded Japan for this unique moment.
Cássio (GK) saved Corinthians at least 4 times, notably with this one. But at '68, after a confusion inside the box, Paolo Guerrero scored the only goal of the match. At '84, Fernando Torres lost this 1on1 opportunity, brilliantly saved by Cássio. At '94, the match ended, and Corinthians were crowned Club World champions for the 2nd time in their history.
Corinthians - 1 Chelsea - 0
12. Cássio 1. Cech
2. Alessandro 2. Ivanovic (Azpilicueta)
3. Chicão 4. David Luiz
13. Paulo André 24. Cahill
6. Fábio Santos 3. A. Cole
5. Ralf 8. Lampard
8. Paulinho 7. Ramires
11. Sheik (Wallace) 13. Moses (Oscar)
23. J. Henrique 17. Hazard (Marin)
20. Danilo 10. Juan Mata
9. Paolo Guerrero (Martinez) 9. Torres
Tite Rafa Benítez
2013-today
After these brilliant days, Corinthians remained on the top tier of Brazilian and South American football. They completed an International Treble in 2013 after winning the 2013 Recopa Sudamericana, won two more notable Brasileirão titles (2015, 2017), and also four more state leagues (2013, 2017, 2018, 2019). Their new arena was also concluded, in 2014.
Aqui é Corinthians!!! (This is Corinthians!!!)
To this day, Corinthians has a fanbase of 30 million supporters, and a stadium attendance average of 33.000, as of 2019.
If you have any questions about Brazilian football, feel free to join us at futebol, where you'll be very welcomed!
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2020.09.02 01:41 futebolstats Pré-jogo – Goiás x Corinthians – Escalações, Horário, Histórico e Onde assistir – Campeonato Brasileiro

Goiás x Corinthians vão se enfrentar nesta quarta-feira (02) e você confere todas as informações da partida aqui. O jogo vai ser válido pela 7ª rodada do Campeonato Brasileiro de 2020. A partida está marcada para iniciar às 19h15 (horário de Brasília) e será realizada no Estádio da Serrinha, que fica localizado em Goiânia, Goiás.
Veja mais!! – Acompanhe todos os jogos AO VIVO

Goiás:

ÚLTIMOS JOGOS:Nos últimos 5 jogos, a equipe do Goiás venceu 1, empatou 1 e perdeu 3. Pelo Campeonato Brasileiro, a equipe disputou quatro jogos e soma uma vitória sobre o Atlético-GO, um empate contra o Palmeiras e duas derrotas para Athletico-PR e Fortaleza. Além disso, o Goiás sofreu uma derrota para o Vasco, em partida válida pela Copa do Brasil.
SITUAÇÃO NA COMPETIÇÃO:O Goiás ocupa atualmente a 18ª posição na tabela de classificação com 4 pontos conquistados. Em quatro jogos disputados, a equipe soma uma vitória, um empate e duas derrotas. Além disso, o Goiás marcou 5 gols e sofreu 6.
ESCALAÇÃO PROVÁVEL:Para o duelo, o técnico Thiago Larghi terá duas dúvidas para montar a equipe. Victor Andrade, com uma entrose no tornozelo, além de Rafael Moura, com uma lesão muscular na parte posterior da coxa direita, serão reavaliados pelo departamento médico e podem ficar de fora do duelo. Caso os atletas não tenham condições, Mike e Vinícius Lopes devem ser os substitutos. Sendo assim, o provável Goiás terá:
Tadeu; Juan Pintado, Fábio Sanches, Rafael Vaz e Jefferson; Sandro, Gilberto (Ratinho) e Daniel Bessa; Keko, Vinícius Lopes (Rafael Moura) e Mike (Victor Andrade).
Técnico: Thiago Larghi
JOGADOR DESTAQUE:Daniel Bessa – 2 gols em 4 jogos disputados

Corinthians:

ÚLTIMOS JOGOS:Nos últimos 5 jogos, a equipe do Corinthians venceu 1, empatou 2 e perdeu 2. Todos os jogos foram pelo Campeonato Brasileiro e a vitória foi sobre o Coritiba, os empates foram contra Grêmio e Fortaleza, enquanto as derrotas foram para Atlético-MG e São Paulo.
SITUAÇÃO NA COMPETIÇÃO:O Corinthians ocupa atualmente a 16ª posição na tabela de classificação com 5 pontos conquistados. Em cinco jogos disputados, a equipe soma uma vitória, dois empates e duas derrotas. Além disso, o Corinthians marcou 7 gols e sofreu 7.
ESCALAÇÃO PROVÁVEL:Para o duelo, o técnico Tiago Nunes poderá promover trocas para evitar lesões e também por conta da sequência de jogos que terá pela frente. Jô e Danilo Avelar podem ser poupados e darem lugar à Bruno Méndez e Boselli. Além disso, Sidcley, Ramiro e Araos, podem dar lugar à Lucas Piton, Otero e Luan, respectivamente. Sendo assim, o provável Corinthians terá:
Cássio, Fagner, Gil, Danilo Avelar e Sidcley (Lucas Piton); Éderson, Cantillo e Luan (Araos); Ramiro, Léo Natel (Gustavo Mosquito) e Jô (Boselli).
Técnico: Tiago Nunes
JOGADOR DESTAQUE:Jô – 2 gols em 5 jogos disputados

ONDE ASSISTIR AO VIVO:

FICHA TÉCNICA:

Torcedômetro Qual é a maior torcida do Brasil?

Goiás x Corinthians – RETROSPECTO*

Já foram realizados 50 jogos oficiais envolvendo os dois times, sendo que o Goiás venceu a equipe adversária em 13 partidas. Enquanto o Corinthians superou seu rival em 18 combates. Além disso, já ficaram no empate em 19 confrontos disputados.
No geral, o Goiás já marcou 53 gols neste duelo. Enquanto o time do Corinthians balançou as redes adversárias 75 vezes.
*Números do site oGol (contabiliza somente jogos oficiais, não inclui partidas amistosas)
Aqui no Futebol Stats você pode acompanhar tudo sobre todos os campeonatos nacionais e também os internacionais. Acesse nossa página para saber onde assistir os jogos de Futebol na TV, e saiba onde assistir todos os jogos de hoje. Não deixe de acessar a nossa página do Torcedômetro e também conferir tudo sobre Futebol Ao Vivo.
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2020.08.30 18:05 ImperialDane Shadowverse Rotation Meta Report. August 30

A week has passed and we now find ourselves one week further into the Fortune's hand Mini expansion Meta and just but a few days away from September.
So what has happened over the week ? What sort of new decks have made their appearance if any ? Read on and find out ! As always my reports are based off personal experiences, tournament data, shadowverse-wins.com and gamewith giving a general idea of the meta.
Forestcraft
In the great forests of Forestcraft beneath the mighty and ancient oaks we find all of the leaders sans Arisa assembled, enjoying her trip to the land of Cowboys and what not to actually discuss important matters rather than just having to listen to Arisa harp on about Roaches and really big insects. Things like the current state of the fairy population which due to recent expansions has been decimated and decisive action needs to be taken to restore it to its old glory. Selwyn meanwhile thought they were going to discuss the latest episode of the Shadowverse Anime.
For Forestcraft Control Roach remains the top dog followed by Evolve Forest and the slow return of Amataz. Terrorformer seems to have vanished into the deepwoods, who knows when it will return ? Forestcraft seems to be in a decent position though it's high reliance on control/combo does leave it a bit inflexible in the current meta and it could do with tools for proper tempo/midrange decks.
Control Roach
A control combo deck built around the Roach. The deck continues to be the most popular forest deck with good performance albeit rather skill intensive in terms of planning out ones turns and using removal optimally to stay alive. Good vs certain less interactive decks but vs more aggressive decks can run into issues with an awkward hand. Also worth noting that Roach will rotate out at the end of September and so the deck is not one i can recommend crafting right now.
Evolve Forest
A combo deck built around Evolve. The deck continues to see some play thanks to its evolve synergistic playstyle and can deal with some of the decks of the meta but is generally close to being a fringe deck. Decent but rather reliant on skill to plan ahead with turns. Also worth noting that Zeus, its main wincondition will rotate out at the end of September.
Amataz Forest
An aggro combo deck built around Amataz and Fairies. With recent developments in the meta. Amataz Forest seems to be making a slow return as it can run down some decks but will run into issues with Evolve Sword and other decks with a notable amount of wards that can thwart the decks gameplan. That said it is a fringe deck at the moment but one that in the right hands can perform alright.
Swordcraft
In the Halls of the Eternal Castle of Swordcraft, where knights are forever present and the clash of steel resounds. We find Melissa wandering about wondering as to her purpose as a leader, will she ever get a remake ? And will that one ever be relevant ? She's still not entirely sure why she became a leader over so many possible candidates.. and whenever she asks the other they only mumble something about "VAs" which doesn't really explain anything.
For Swordcraft Evolve Sword leads the charge as always followed by Rally Sword. Not much sign of other decks there still, overall Sword continues to be heavily carried by the strength of Alyaska with some decks also starting to experiment more with Ilmisuna.
Evolve Sword
A midrange deck built around Evolve synergies. Evolve Sword continues to be one of the strongest decks of the meta currently due to a well rounded strategy with few weaknesses that can challenge a great deal of decks while also being resistant to certain strategies thanks to steadfast Samurai and Alyaska. Generally it's only major real weakness is Spellboost Rune that can effectively disrupt the strategy. A strong deck that does require a bit of skill to get the most out of.
Rally Sword
A tempo deck built around Rallying. Seeing less plan than Evolve Sword the deck is nonetheless reasonably solid but will require some skill to pilot properly as the deck can still struggle with consistency issues due to a lack of more payoffs for the deck. That said it has plenty of targets it can go after and against less experienced players it can rapidly overwhelm them and run them down.
Runecraft
In the great mystical academies of Runecraft where all sorts of Arcane knowledge can be found. The civil war rages as Erasmus finds himself on the retreat while Daria and Isabelle have had a falling out and are now clashing with each other. All the while Oz stands on the sidelines quite amused by the entire spectacle, not that she particularly cares who wins in the end.
For Runecraft Spellboost Rune is the pinnacle of the class followed by Arcane Item Shop and finally Earth Rite Rune. Overall in a strong position due to a plethora of solid decks, runecraft has plenty of choices to pursue in terms of climbing the ladder.
Spellboost Rune
A midrang deck built around Spellboost synergies. The deck continues to be one of the most popular decks though it is also starting to see a variety of decks trying to target it. And there is some variations still going about, some decks include Sudden showers for extra hard removal as an example. A strong deck that can tackle a lot of things though it does perform better with an experienced hand and may take some time to get a hang of.
Item Shop Rune
A combo deck built around the Arcane Item Shop. Seeing a rise in popularity as it seems to have a good matchup against Spellboost Rune amongst others, it is a more skill intensive yet cheap deck. That in the right hands can be quite nasty, that said it is weak to Aggressive decks and decks with the right tech choices in it to disrupt its strategy.
Earth Rite Rune
A midrange deck built around Earth Rite synergies. Not quite as popular as it used to be but still quite strong, there hasn't been any real changes to the deck and it generally has a solid performance but with more tech cards out there that can make things a bit rougher and the flashyness of spellboost, it is seeing a bit of a drop there.
Dragoncraft
In the great Caverns of Dragoncraft where all manner of beasts roam and treasures lie guarded. We find Forte stumbling back after an attempt to ride one of the great Eternal Whales.. Turns out they're not too easy to ride on and she is quite sore from the experience, thankfully Filene is quick to provide plenty of ice to soothe her sprained posterior.
For Dragoncraft Discard Dragon continues to fly the highest followed by Moby Deck Dragon and finally Natura Dragon proves to be as stubborn as always. Generally Dragon remains in a solid position with numerous decks, that said Filene seems to have made less of an impact for now, but that can always change.
Discard Dragon
A midrange deck built around Discard Synergies. The deck continues to be the best Dragoncraft has even if it is quite skill intensive which holds back the general interest of the deck back. But in the right hands it is quite potent, that said Evolve Sword with Alyaska is proving to be a bit of an issue for the deck
Moby Deck Dragon
A midrange deck built around the Eternal Whale. It continues to see some play in particular at lower ranks where players struggle against it more whereas at higher ranks its strategy does run into issues and it risks being run down or hard countered. That said it is a relatively cheaper midrange deck that can be easy to get into it and is overall decent.
Natura Dragon
A midrange deck built around Natura Synergies. The deck continues to hang around with some decks running the Eternal Whale as an extra tool to help it out in certain matchups. A generally decent deck it does require some skill to get the most out of in the current meta.
Shadowcraft
In the great Catacombs of Shadowcraft most of the leaders are currently hiding from Luna as she is keen to try out this whole "Forced Resurrection" thing and none of them are particularly keen to be on the receiving end of that one, least of all Cerberus who'd rather prefer not being forced into doing anything.
For Shadowcraft Yokai Shadow has risen once more and clawed its way to the top followed by Burial Rite Shadow and finally Natura shadow has also climbed out of its tomb. Shadowcraft seems to be making a bit of a return on the back of Thoth and Milteo along with everyones's favorite Fox lady. Ginsetsu.
Yokai Shadow
A midrange deck built around Ginsetsu, Thoth and Milteo that either aims to overwhelm the enemy with followers or kill them with a combo involving an enhanced Milteo and then burning the enemy out with Thoths ability. A fringe deck before the mini expansion it seems to have made a notable presence for itself after the mini expansion and seems to be the most played Shadowcraft deck. A skill intensive deck it is not recommendable to newer players.
Burial Rite Shadow
A midrange deck built around Burial Rite and reanimation. By now most decks have cut Sacristan with some switching to Ginsetsu as both board control and another finishing tool. Others are using Hades as another win condition. Overall the deck has fragemented into varying subtypes which all seem reasonably solid.
Natura Shadow
A midrange deck built around Natura synergies. Making a comeback largely due to the same reasons Yokai did, the whole Milteo + Thoth element is proving to be popular and with another win condition added to the deck that way not drawing thoth fast enough isn't quite the end of the world. That said it is a fringe deck compared to Yokai Shadow and is more for those people who really like Natura shadows playstyle more than anything.
Bloodcraft
In the great and decadent manor of Bloodcraft where blood and wine flows freely in equal amounts, or so i hear told. We find Medusa trying to replicate Baal's pose.. but can't quite seem to strike the same menacing aura and so runs off to Vania to cry about it.
For Bloodcraft Control Blood remains the Apex Predator followed by Baal Blood and Wrath Blood. Overall blood remains in a nice position with a variety of decks covering different playstyles giving the class some depth.
Control Blood
A Control deck built around a variety of potent control tools. The deck continues to be one of the most played Bloodcraft deck but is having some issues with the newer meta along with its higher skill requirement is pressuring the deck and may see it drop below Baal blood in the near future. A solid deck but one that does require a good deal of skill to pilot succesfully.
Baal Blood
A tempo deck built around Baal and Ravening corruption. The deck continues to enjoy a rise in popularity as one of the few aggresive decks in the meta that works. Able to run down less ready decks and players fast thanks to its high burst ability it does run into trouble with decks that can disrupt it like Evolve Sword sword. But in the right hands can perform quite well.
Wrath Blood
An aggressive midrange deck built around Wrath synergies. The deck is seeing some play but is almost at the fringes as Baal blood is overall faster than it and it seems to be lacking that special something to help make it stand out in Comparison. So while decent isn't that popular.
Havencraft
In the great Cathedral of Havencraft where Worship rules eternal. We find Eris in deep contemplation about the arrival of Ra, an actual god and not one of those Rejects they prop up as ones. A real god, it's amazing and he's actually doing some good work for them too ! They just got to keep him from.. the others...
For Havencraft Control Haven seems to be the cool new kid on the block followed by Amulet and Elana Haven trailing behind. The class seems to be benefitting quite a bit from Ra overall and the arrival of Control Haven is an interesting new surprise.
Control Haven
A control deck built around a lot of banish tools. The deck has made a recent appearance and has quickly become popular due to its many control tools and disruptive elements allowing it to take on a variety of decks, in particular Artifact Portal can struggle with all of its artifacts getting banished and it can even give some Rune decks trouble as well. A new deck it is hard to say how strong it is, but the signs are promising though there is for now any conclusive build. Not a deck i'd recommend to newcomers either with Mad Eidolon rotating out at the end of the month paired with a high skill requirement.
Amulet Haven
A midrange deck built around Amulets. The deck continues to see some play but overall there hasn't been any major developments and it continues to do decently in the current meta with nothing particular to note about it.
Elana Haven
A midrange deck built around healing. It has seemingly been pushed to the fringes as it continues to struggle in the meta and there seems to be no conclusive build either, some run Ra, some do not. On top of this it is rather skill requiring and Elana herself rotates at the end of September so it is a tough deck to recommend.
Portalcraft
In the Vertex Colony, high in Orbit. We find Lishenna already bossing all the others around.. Well Spinaria and Orchis are doing it happily while Nexus just does it. It's only really Yuwan who is chafing under it, mostly because he can't stand Lishennas music or her attitude.
For Portalcraft Artifact Portal Remains the one and only deck for now. We'll have to see if any new ones appear over the coming weeks. So with one strong deck Portal is in a good yet precarious position.
Artifact Portal
A midrange deck built around Artifactts. A strong yet skill requiring deck, artifact portal continues to be quite popular due to its general strength and playstyle allowing it to challenge a variety of decks and with no particularly weak matchups is overall quite solid and rather popular at tournaments and on ladder.
So there you have it, by now several new decks have emerged or re-emerged since the mini expansion and who knows what may come over the coming weeks, but already now this has easily been the most impactful Mini expansion and the rise of Control Haven is definitely not something i quite saw coming, certainly not like that with a card like Acolyte's Light not haven seen any serious usage since maybe Darkness Evolved ? If ever actually. So quite a few surprises already and i hope they continue.
So keep trying out new things and new decks. And until next week, have fun playing Shadowverse!
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2020.08.27 03:42 Anothergen Which World XI would Jimmy fit into, while taking into account aggregate

When I posted this thread yesterday, I suspected the main concern would be to do with sample sizes, leading to some players with short careers appearing high on the lists. The main concern generated through such is sample size, which reducing overall certainty in the results.
Of the results, the most controversial were around the bowlers as they were picked, below is the top 50 for your consideration:
Rank Player Matches Wickets Average WPM Era Adjust Rating
1 SF Barnes (ENG) 27 189 16.43 7.000 26.54 18.58 0.6139
2 Sir RJ Hadlee (NZ) 86 431 22.30 5.012 32.17 20.79 0.4910
3 MD Marshall (WI) 81 376 20.95 4.642 32.25 19.49 0.4881
4 PJ Cummins (AUS) 30 143 21.83 4.767 32.11 20.39 0.4835
5 GD McGrath (AUS) 124 563 21.64 4.540 33.10 19.62 0.4811
6 DW Steyn (SA) 93 439 22.95 4.720 33.56 20.52 0.4796
7 DK Lillee (AUS) 70 355 23.92 5.071 31.86 22.53 0.4745
8 J Garner (WI) 58 259 20.98 4.466 31.54 19.95 0.4731
9 Mohammad Asif (PAK) 23 106 24.37 4.609 35.17 20.78 0.4709
10 AA Donald (SA) 72 330 22.25 4.583 31.92 20.92 0.4681
11 FS Trueman (ENG) 67 307 21.58 4.582 30.91 20.95 0.4677
12 CEL Ambrose (WI) 98 405 20.99 4.133 31.85 19.77 0.4572
13 K Rabada (SA) 43 197 22.96 4.581 31.21 22.07 0.4556
14 AK Davidson (AUS) 44 186 20.53 4.227 30.17 20.42 0.4550
15 RJ Harris (AUS) 27 113 23.52 4.185 33.95 20.79 0.4487
16 CEH Croft (WI) 27 125 23.30 4.630 29.93 23.36 0.4452
17 Waqar Younis (PAK) 87 373 23.56 4.287 32.54 21.72 0.4443
18 AV Bedser (ENG) 51 236 24.90 4.627 31.76 23.52 0.4436
19 Imran Khan (PAK) 88 362 22.81 4.114 32.23 21.23 0.4401
20 SR Clark (AUS) 24 94 23.86 3.917 35.33 20.26 0.4397
21 NAT Adcock (SA) 26 104 21.11 4.000 30.05 21.07 0.4357
22 BA Reid (AUS) 27 113 24.64 4.185 32.93 22.45 0.4318
23 SM Pollock (SA) 108 421 23.12 3.898 33.09 20.96 0.4313
24 MA Holding (WI) 60 249 23.69 4.150 31.68 22.43 0.4301
25 PM Pollock (SA) 28 116 24.19 4.143 32.33 22.44 0.4296
26 Wasim Akram (PAK) 104 414 23.62 3.981 32.20 22.00 0.4253
27 Mohammad Abbas (PAK) 21 80 21.70 3.810 30.04 21.67 0.4192
28 AME Roberts (WI) 47 202 25.61 4.298 31.16 24.66 0.4175
29 MG Johnson (AUS) 73 313 28.41 4.288 34.45 24.74 0.4163
30 CA Walsh (WI) 132 519 24.45 3.932 32.17 22.80 0.4153
31 N Wagner (NZ) 48 206 26.60 4.292 32.06 24.90 0.4152
32 MA Starc (AUS) 57 244 26.98 4.281 32.09 25.22 0.4120
33 JA Snow (ENG) 49 202 26.67 4.122 32.64 24.51 0.4101
34 VD Philander (SA) 64 224 22.32 3.500 32.17 20.82 0.4100
35 Shoaib Akhtar (PAK) 46 178 25.70 3.870 33.24 23.19 0.4085
36 TM Alderman (AUS) 41 170 27.15 4.146 32.57 25.01 0.4072
37 IR Bishop (WI) 43 161 24.28 3.744 32.09 22.70 0.4062
38 RR Lindwall (AUS) 61 228 23.03 3.738 30.36 22.75 0.4053
39 Fazal Mahmood (PAK) 34 139 24.71 4.088 29.71 24.95 0.4048
40 JM Anderson (ENG) 156 600 26.80 3.846 33.62 23.91 0.4011
41 WW Hall (WI) 48 192 26.39 4.000 31.62 25.04 0.3997
42 MHN Walker (AUS) 34 138 27.48 4.059 32.42 25.43 0.3995
43 JL Pattinson (AUS) 21 81 26.33 3.857 32.03 24.67 0.3955
44 JR Hazlewood (AUS) 51 195 26.20 3.824 31.83 24.69 0.3935
45 TA Boult (NZ) 67 267 27.66 3.985 32.09 25.86 0.3926
46 MG Hughes (AUS) 53 212 28.38 4.000 32.80 25.96 0.3925
47 CJ McDermott (AUS) 71 291 28.63 4.099 32.22 26.66 0.3921
48 JN Gillespie (AUS) 71 259 26.14 3.648 33.01 23.75 0.3919
49 DW Fleming (AUS) 20 75 25.89 3.750 31.48 24.68 0.3898
50 RGD Willis (ENG) 90 325 25.20 3.611 31.79 23.78 0.3897
Now, these concerns are valid, but because bowling averages have uncertainty that tends with the square root of wickets taken, these uncertainties get small fairly quickly. That said, as pointed out, comparing someone like McGrath, with 563 wickets, to someone like Cummins with 143 does run that concern.
Now, there are a number of ways to take into account this issue with uncertainty. One such method is to use bayesian inference. To do this, we need a prior distribution, which in this instance is the average distribution of bowlers playing test cricket. We need both a mean and a standard deviation for the two metrics used, these being bowling average and wickets per match. To find this, the same analysis was applied to set of all bowlers with at least 20 tests being one of the first four bowlers to bowl in an innings. This took into account the same era effects as before:
What Average WPM
Mean 29.80 3.083
Stdev 7.11 1.001
To make use of this, we need to make a few assumptions:
  1. All bowlers in the set have sufficiently large samples that the likelihood function for their averages behaves as a normal distribution.
  2. The samples for bowlers is large enough that wicket taking behaves as an exponential distribution, hence the standard deviation of the distribution of 'runs per wicket' is approximately the same as the average.
  3. The standard deviation for wickets per match is approximately 0.60 times the wickets per match value.
2 and 3 can be shown to be approximately true in general from surveys of player data (varies by about 10% player to player), while 1 is generally true just from the sample size used. The impact of breaking these assumptions is basically making the next step order of magnitude fiddlier, but doesn't impact the results to any great extent. The method that'll we'll be using is the standard for determining a posterior distribution's average for two normal distributions, breaking the assumptions makes it messier as we can't use that calculation anymore. The calculation itself is annoying to format on reddit, so I'll just post it as an image here. Here, mu represents the averages of the posterior (denoted such) and prior (denoted with a 0) as well as the average from the likelihood function (x-bar) and their respective standard deviations (sigma and sigma 0).
In any case, armed with this, we can use the players averages and the expected distributions of players to determine an average that we, in effect, have the evidence to claim. That is, the way to think about the numbers produced are to see them not as their actual averages, but rather, a value that we can confidently claim with the evidence given. If you've ever wanted to quantify that thought of "well, if a guy has 500 wickets at 25.00, and another has 100 wickets at 24.00, I'd go with the guy with 500 still", this is basically the formal way of doing that. Here, we'll be using
In any case, below is the new top 50, using those adjusted values. I've included the old rating for comparison sake. As would be expected, it has had a large impact on the likes of Cummins and Asif.
Rank Player Matches Wickets B-WPM B-Adj Old Rat B-Rat
1 SF Barnes (ENG) 27 189 5.455 18.97 0.6139 0.5363
2 Sir RJ Hadlee (NZ) 86 431 4.829 20.97 0.4910 0.4799
3 MD Marshall (WI) 81 376 4.506 19.69 0.4881 0.4784
4 GD McGrath (AUS) 124 563 4.458 19.75 0.4811 0.4751
5 DW Steyn (SA) 93 439 4.591 20.69 0.4796 0.4710
6 J Garner (WI) 58 259 4.314 20.24 0.4731 0.4616
7 DK Lillee (AUS) 70 355 4.840 22.73 0.4745 0.4615
8 PJ Cummins (AUS) 30 143 4.407 20.90 0.4835 0.4591
9 AA Donald (SA) 72 330 4.441 21.14 0.4681 0.4583
10 FS Trueman (ENG) 67 307 4.430 21.19 0.4677 0.4573
11 CEL Ambrose (WI) 98 405 4.071 19.96 0.4572 0.4517
12 Mohammad Asif (PAK) 23 106 4.229 21.46 0.4709 0.4439
13 AK Davidson (AUS) 44 186 4.082 20.82 0.4550 0.4428
14 K Rabada (SA) 43 197 4.358 22.43 0.4556 0.4408
15 Waqar Younis (PAK) 87 373 4.202 21.92 0.4443 0.4378
16 Imran Khan (PAK) 88 362 4.047 21.44 0.4401 0.4345
17 AV Bedser (ENG) 51 236 4.425 23.80 0.4436 0.4312
18 RJ Harris (AUS) 27 113 3.977 21.42 0.4487 0.4309
19 SM Pollock (SA) 108 421 3.859 21.14 0.4313 0.4273
20 CEH Croft (WI) 27 125 4.287 23.87 0.4452 0.4237
21 SR Clark (AUS) 24 94 3.761 21.02 0.4397 0.4230
22 MA Holding (WI) 60 249 4.050 22.71 0.4301 0.4223
23 Wasim Akram (PAK) 104 414 3.934 22.18 0.4253 0.4212
24 NAT Adcock (SA) 26 104 3.834 21.75 0.4357 0.4199
25 BA Reid (AUS) 27 113 3.977 23.04 0.4318 0.4154
26 PM Pollock (SA) 28 116 3.952 23.02 0.4296 0.4143
27 CA Walsh (WI) 132 519 3.898 22.93 0.4153 0.4123
28 MG Johnson (AUS) 73 313 4.188 24.93 0.4163 0.4099
29 AME Roberts (WI) 47 202 4.148 24.95 0.4175 0.4077
30 N Wagner (NZ) 48 206 4.145 25.17 0.4152 0.4058
31 VD Philander (SA) 64 224 3.473 21.15 0.4100 0.4052
32 MA Starc (AUS) 57 244 4.157 25.45 0.4120 0.4042
33 Mohammad Abbas (PAK) 21 80 3.665 22.52 0.4192 0.4034
34 JA Snow (ENG) 49 202 4.007 24.81 0.4101 0.4019
35 Shoaib Akhtar (PAK) 46 178 3.787 23.56 0.4085 0.4009
36 RR Lindwall (AUS) 61 228 3.688 23.06 0.4053 0.3999
37 JM Anderson (ENG) 156 600 3.821 24.02 0.4011 0.3989
38 IR Bishop (WI) 43 161 3.675 23.12 0.4062 0.3987
39 TM Alderman (AUS) 41 170 4.007 25.33 0.4072 0.3977
40 Fazal Mahmood (PAK) 34 139 3.937 25.34 0.4048 0.3942
41 WW Hall (WI) 48 192 3.902 25.33 0.3997 0.3925
42 MHN Walker (AUS) 34 138 3.914 25.80 0.3995 0.3895
43 JN Gillespie (AUS) 71 259 3.612 24.00 0.3919 0.3879
44 TA Boult (NZ) 67 267 3.914 26.04 0.3926 0.3877
45 JR Hazlewood (AUS) 51 195 3.754 24.99 0.3935 0.3876
46 CJ McDermott (AUS) 71 291 4.019 26.80 0.3921 0.3872
47 RGD Willis (ENG) 90 325 3.585 23.98 0.3897 0.3867
48 MG Hughes (AUS) 53 212 3.910 26.19 0.3925 0.3864
49 M Ntini (SA) 101 390 3.822 25.81 0.3878 0.3848
50 JL Pattinson (AUS) 21 81 3.700 25.33 0.3955 0.3822
Jimmy moves to the 12th XI!
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2020.08.26 09:27 majinmattossj2 Brazilian Big12 series, Episode 7/12: Internacional

Previous episodes: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro
In this series I will present each of the 12 Brazilian teams that together compose the "Big 12". My point is to make them more knowledgeable to you, since each one of these teams have their share of the Brazil national team success and of Brazilian club football accomplishments as a whole. I'll try to be as smooth, efficient and non-boring as I can. If the feedback is positive, I'll keep bringing more to this series. So ok, let's do this!
Method: I'll present the teams in a chronological order, from the oldest foundation (Flamengo-1895) to the latest one (São Paulo-1930). The order will be: Flamengo, Vasco, Fluminense, Grêmio, Botafogo, Atlético Mineiro, Internacional, Corinthians, Santos, Palmeiras, Cruzeiro, São Paulo. How many of these have you heard of?
Extra clubs: Due to a high number of requests, I'll also present 3 teams who don't belong to the Big12, but are also considered big clubs in Brazil: Bahia, Athletico Paranaense and Coritiba. Welcome to the club!
Geographical reference: Before we start, I'd like to ask something very simple from you. I want you to keep in mind that these 12 teams are spread in 4 different States in Brazil. The club's State name is written below, next to the club's name. It has a direct link to Google Maps, so that you can check it out to make this experience more accurate.

Episode 7/12: Internacional (State: Rio Grande do Sul), founded in 1909

State rival: Grêmio

Stadium: Beira-Rio (New) / (Old)

Mascot: Saci

Major achievements: 1 Club World Cup (2006), 2 Copa Libertadores (2006, 2010), 3 Brazilian Leagues (1975, 1976, 1979), 1 Copa do Brasil (1992), 1 Copa Sudamericana (2008)

State League titles: 45 (Against Grêmio's 38)

PLAY AND LISTEN TO INTERNACIONAL'S ANTHEM WHILE READING - Click here
The first decades
Internacional was founded in 1909 by a Brazilian journalist and his brothers, who wanted to integrate different nationalities into a club, in a time when non-German descendants had a hard time finding a club. In that time, there wasn't a National League yet - due to the country's bigness and weak infrastructure -, so the teams would play in their State Leagues until 1959. Until then, Internacional won 15 State Leagues (their rival Grêmio, 9), with notably 8 titles in the 1940s by the "Steamroller" team. What probably helped Internacional in this period was the acceptance of black players since 1928, while it took Grêmio until 1952 to do so.
Falcão and the Golden Era: 1969-1979
After a difficult 1960s decade due to the construction of the Beira-Rio stadium (though getting 2 National League runner-up spots in 1967 and 1968), Internacional was ready to shine, beginning with their new stadium inauguration in 1969.
In this 11-year period, the club won 9 State Leagues and 3 Brazilian Leagues (1975, 1976, 1979), with a notable Invincible title in 1979.
In the 9 State League titles campaigns, Internacional performed overall with 125W-29D-3L, or 89% of the points. In the 3 National Leagues titles campaigns, they managed a record of 54W-16D-6L, or 82% of the points.
In the 1975-76 back-to-back Brazilian League titles, Internacional was led by the world-class players Figueroa and Falcão, and also names like Manga, Carpegiani, Valdomiro and Lula, all of them elected to the League's Best XI, and also with at least 10 caps for the Brazilian NT (in Figueroa's case, the Chilean NT).
In 1975, after three group stages, Internacional met in the semi-finals the crazy Fluminense of Rivellino, Carlos Alberto Torres and PC Caju. Playing at the Maracanã, Internacional won 2-0, with two stunning goals after two brilliant assists (52s video). In the big final against Cruzeiro, at home, Internacional beat them 1-0, with a very solid match by their GK Manga, and an interesting goal by Figueroa: the sun shone at his exact spot at the moment of the goal, being therefore called The Enlightened goal. Flávio, from Internacional, was the league topscorer, with 16 goals.
In 1976, after winning a record 8-consecutive State League titles and being knocked off of the Copa Libertadores by Cruzeiro (in a crazy 4-5 defeat), Internacional would meet Atlético Mineiro in the semis of the Brazilian League. The opponents opened the score, but Batista tied it with a nice shot from the outside of the area at '28. At '91, Falcão scored the winning goal, after an amazing one-two with the head with teammate Escurinho, from the outside of the area until the back of the net. Internacional would then play against Corinthians in the big final, who had defeated Fluminense in the other semis. Without problems, Internacional beat them 2-0, with goals from Dario and Valdomiro, to be crowned Brazilian champions for the 2nd time in a row - with Figueroa winning the league Golden Ball, and Dario being the topscorer with 28 goals.
Invincibles 1979: the team that never lost
For the first time in the modern era (post-1971) of the Brazilian League, and an unique feat until today, a team was able to win the league undefeated. Internacional 1979 played 23 matches, with 16 wins and 7 draws. It wasn't the same brilliant team from 1975-76, but they still counted with their star player Falcão, aged 26, and a very strong roster. After three group stages, they faced the Palmeiras of Telê Santana in the semis, national champions twice in the 1970s. In the 1st leg in São Paulo, Palmeiras opened the score, but Jair equalized. Palmeiras scored again at '55, but Falcão's star shone brighter as he equalized from a header, before scoring the winning goal at '70, ending the match with a 3-2. In the 2nd leg, at home, a 1-1 tie guaranteed Internacional in the big final of the league, against Roberto Dinamite's Vasco.
Without Falcão for the final's 1st leg away, at the Maracanã, Internacional still managed to win the match 2-0, with both goals from Chico Spina: one in the 1st half, and the other in the 2nd half. In the 2nd leg, at home, Internacional opened the score with Jair, and Falcão scored the 2nd goal, before Vasco scored once and the match ended with a 2-1 win for Internacional, who won their 3rd league title in the decade. Falcão, like in 1978, was elected the tournament's best player, winning the Golden Ball.
1980s: the Silver Era
In the 1980s, Internacional finished 2nd in the 1980 Copa Libertadores, 1987 and 1988 Brazilian Leagues.
In 1980, Falcão's last season before moving to Italy to become King of Rome, Internacional reached the Copa Libertadores final, after topping their two group stages. After a tie at home in the final's 1st leg, they lost 0-1 to Nacional, in Montevideo, Uruguay.
In 1987, they lost the national league final to Flamengo (1-1 and 0-1), and in 1988, to Bahia (1-2 and 0-0).
Internacional main team also represented Brazil in the 1984 Olympic Games in Los Angeles, losing in the final to France (0-2).
However, Internacional was able to win a friendly tournament in Spain, the Juan Gamper 1982 Trophy. After beating Maradona's Barcelona in the Camp Nou (0,0; PK: 4-1), they beat Manchester City 3-1 in the final, becoming the first and only non-European team to win the trophy. Internacional also won four consecutive state league titles (1981-84).
The 1992 Copa do Brasil
In 1989, the Copa do Brasil was created, and it took 4 seasons for Internacional to win their only national cup, in 1992. They beat Muniz Freire (3-1, 5-0), Corinthians (4-0, 0-0), Grêmio (1-1, 1-1, PK 3-0), Palmeiras (2-0, 2-1) and Fluminense (1-2, 1-0) before being crowned champions. Highlights to the final's 2nd leg, when they scored the trophy-winning goal at '88 from a penalty kick, after missing this absurd opportunity.
Later in the 90s, they reached the semi-finals of the 1997 Brasileirão and of the 1999 Copa do Brasil. However, at the end of the 1999 season, Internacional escaped from relegation in the last league round, with a goal from their idol Dunga, against Palmeiras, at home. Internacional also won 4 state league titles in the 1990s.
2006-2011: International Glory - the 2nd Golden Era
Inter invested in their youth system at the turn of the century, providing the football world with names like Lúcio, Fábio Rochemback, Daniel Carvalho, Nilmar, Alexandre Pato and Rafael Sóbis, with some of them participating in the club's golden era.
After 4 consecutive state league titles in the early 2000s, and also reaching the Copa Sudamericana SF and QF in 2004 and 2005, Internacional was getting close to win a major title. In the 2005 Brazilian League, they finished 2nd, in one of the most controversial scandals of the history of the tournament, with the discovery of 11 matches fixed in Kia Joorabchian's MSI/Corinthians favor. Even if all the matches were played again, Internacional was immensely damaged by a referee in their decisive match against Corinthians, when this criminal penalty was not awarded to Internacional and the forward was sent off for simulation. Internacional finished 2nd, behind Corinthians, and had to content themselves with a Copa Libertadores spot.
Between 2006 and 2011, Internacional won 2 Copa Libertadores, 1 Club World Cup, 1 Copa Sudamericana and 2 Recopa Sudamericana - 6 international trophies. They also finished 2nd in 2 Brazilian Leagues, 1 Copa do Brasil and 1 Recopa Sudamericana.
The 2006 Copa Libertadores and Club World Cup dream
In 2006, Internacional won the Copa Libertadores and the Club World Cup, after beating São Paulo (2-1, 2-2) and Barcelona (1-0) in the finals.
Tournament Round Match Goals
2006 Libertadores GS 1-1 Maracaibo (VEN) Ceará
2006 Libertadores GS 3-0 Nacional (URU) Michel, Fernandão, R. Cardoso
2006 Libertadores GS 2-1 Pumas (MEX) Fernandão, Rentería
2006 Libertadores GS 3-2 Pumas (MEX) Michel, Fernandão, Adriano
2006 Libertadores GS 0-0 Nacional (URU) -
2006 Libertadores GS 4-0 Maracaibo (VEN) Adriano Gabiru, Bolívar, Michel, Rentería
2006 Libertadores Ro16 2-1 Nacional (URU) Jorge Wagner, Rentería
2006 Libertadores Ro16 0-0 Nacional (URU) -
2006 Libertadores QF 1-2 LDU (ECU) Jorge Wagner
2006 Libertadores QF 2-0 LDU (ECU) Rafael Sóbis, Rentería
2006 Libertadores SF 0-0 Libertad (PAR) -
2006 Libertadores SF 2-0 Libertad (PAR) Alex, Fernandão
2006 Libertadores Final 2-1 São Paulo Rafael Sóbis (2x)
2006 Libertadores Final 2-2 São Paulo Fernandão, Tinga
2006 Club World Cup SF 2-1 Al-Ahly (EGY) Pato, Luiz Adriano
2006 Club World Cup Final 1-0 Barcelona (SPA) Adriano Gabiru
In the continental campaign, they topped their group stage with 4W-2D, placing 2nd overall in the cup. Highlights to their 2 comeback victories against Pumas (Mexico), and to Rubens Cardoso difficult goal against Nacional (Uruguay).
In the ro16, Inter made a 2-1 comeback against Nacional, in Uruguay, with goals from Jorge Wagner in the 1st half, and this painting of a goal from Rentería. At home, a 0-0 draw qualified Inter to the quarter-finals, even though Nacional (Uruguay) had 2 goals wrongly disallowed.
In the quarter-finals, Inter lost the 1st leg 1-2 in Ecuador, to LDU. At home, Rafael Sóbis opened the score at '51 and Rentería scored this beautiful goal at '86 to put Inter in the semis.
In the semi-finals, Inter held a 0-0 tie in Paraguay against Libertad, with an incredible ball hitting the post, the back of Internacional GK and then going out at '86. At home, Inter opened the score with Alex and closed the 2-0 score with a goal from Fernandão.
In the big final, against current champions São Paulo, Inter played the 1st leg away and opened the score at '54 with Rafael Sóbis, who also scored the 2nd goal at '62, helping his team to leave with a 2-1 advantage for the 2nd leg at home. Fernandão opened the score at '29, after a huge mistake by legendary GK Rogério Ceni. São Paulo tied at '50, but Tinga scored at '70 and was sent off for taking his shirt off. São Paulo tied again at '85, and almost scored the trophy goal at '90. The match ended 2-2 at '93, and Internacional were crowned continental champions for the first time, thus qualifying to the Club World Cup in Japan.
2006 Club World Cup - dream victory against Barcelona's Ronaldinho
After beating Al-Ahly (Egypt) in the semis, with goals from the upcoming talent Alexandre Pato at '23 and Luiz Adriano at '71, Internacional would face the Barcelona of Ronaldinho in the final, undefeated champions of Europe.
It would be a very climatic final, due to the fact that Ronaldinho was revealed to football by Internacional's archrival Grêmio, which was also the club he supported since he was a kid. The GreNal rivalry (Grêmio vs. Internacional, one of the fiercest in South America) around this match was intense, not only because of Dinho, but also because Grêmio were the only club world champions of the state, since their 1983 title.
In a very open game, with a few real chances from Barcelona, Internacional defense were very solid. At minute 82, Iarley performed a nice nutmeg in Puyol and passed to Adriano Gabiru, who scored the only goal of the match, that would crown Internacional Club World champions. Two minutes later, Inter GK Clemer saved this dangerous shot from Deco. At '93, the match was over, and the world turned red.
Internacional - 1 Barcelona - 0
1. Clemer 1. Victor Valdés
2. Ceará 11. Zambrotta (Belletti)
3. Índio 4. Rafa Márquez
4. Fabiano Eller 5. Puyol (c)
15. Rubens Cardoso 12. Bronckhorst
8. Edinho 3. Thiago Motta (Xavi)
5. Wellington Monteiro 24. Iniesta
7. Alex (Vargas) 20. Deco
9. Fernandão (c) (Adriano Gabiru) 8. Giuly
10. Iarley 10. Ronaldinho
11. Pato (Luiz Adriano) 7. Gudjohnsen (Ezquerro)
Abel Braga Frank Rijkaard
Internacional ended the magical 2006 season finishing 2nd in the Brazilian League, and posteriorly won the International Treble in 2007, with the 2007 Recopa Sudamericana victory against Pachuca (Mexico) (1-2, 4-0).
2008: Copa Sudamericana
In 2008, led by Tite (coach), Alex, Nilmar and D'Alessandro, Internacional won the Copa Sudamericana (Southamerican version of the Europa League) undefeated (5W-5D). They beat on the way to the title: Grêmio (1-1, 2-2), Universidad Católica (Chile) (1-1, 0-0), Boca Juniors (Argentina) (2-0, 2-1), Chivas (Mexico) (2-0, 4-0) and Estudiantes (Argentina) (1-0, 1-1).
Highlights to their 85th minute tie-goal in Chile in the ro16 under a crazy fog, their 2-1 quarter-final victory in La Bombonera against Riquelme's Boca Juniors, and their crazy title-winning goal against Veron's Estudiantes, at home, in extra time, by Nilmar.
However, in 2009, they lost the Recopa Sudamericana to LDU (Ecuador) (0-1, 0-3), and also the Copa do Brasil final to Ronaldo Nazario's Corinthians (0-2, 2-2), besides finishing 2nd in the national league, behind Adriano's Flamengo.
2010: the Copa Libertadores dream again
Just 4 seasons after their 1st title, Internacional won the prestigious continental title for the 2nd time, only the 12th team in the history of the tournament to do so, and the 5th brazilian club.
Internacional topped their group stage, with 3W-3D, against Deportivo Quito (ECU), Cerro (URU), Emelec (ECU). In the KO stages, they won on the away goal rule until they reached the final.
In the ro16, they faced Banfield, from Argentina. In the 1st leg, away, they lost 1-3, with left-back Kléber scoring this beautiful goal for the Brazilians. At home, they opened the score with Alecsandro at '42 and Walter scored the qualifying goal at '57.
In the quarter-finals, they met the current champions Estudiantes, of the star Verón, from Argentina. In the 1st leg, at home, Inter won 1-0, scoring only at the 88th minute, with a header from Sorondo. They were losing the 2nd leg, away, by 0-2, but Giuliano epically scored the qualifying goal at '88, inside a crazy fog.
In the semi-finals, São Paulo were in their path, and they beat them 1-0 at home in the 1st leg, when Giuliano finally broke Rogério Ceni's goalkeeping at '68. In the 2nd leg, São Paulo opened the score at '30, after a bizarre mistake by Internacional goalkeeper, but Inter equalized at '52 with Alecsandro. São Paulo scored again at '54, but Internacional held the pressure and qualified to the final.
Chivas, from Mexico, were Internacional adversaries in the big final. Playing away in the 1st leg, the Brazilians performed a great 2-1 comeback, with goals at '73, a header from Giuliano, and at '76, with a header from Bolívar. In the 2nd leg, at home, Chivas opened the score at '43, but Rafael Sóbis tied at '61 and Leandro Damião scored one more at '76. With one hand in the trophy, Giuliano scored the third at '90, but Chivas found the time to score one more time, as the match ended with a 3-2 victory in Internacional's favor. For the 2nd time in their history, they were the champions of South America.
Unfortunately, the "Internacional vs. Internazionale (Italy)" hype for the 2010 Club World Cup could not be fulfilled, due to Internacional loss against Mazembe (Congo) in the semis. They finished 3rd, after beating 4-2 Seongnam (South Korea).
In 2011, Internacional claimed their Recopa Sudamericana title, after beating Independiente (Argentina) (1-2, 3-1), thus closing their 2006-2011 international glory era.
Year International title Adversary
2006 Copa Libertadores São Paulo
2006 Club World Cup Barcelona (Spain)
2007 Recopa Sudamericana Pachuca (Mexico)
2008 Copa Sudamericana Estudiantes (Argentina)
2010 Copa Libertadores Chivas (Mexico)
2011 Recopa Sudamericana Independiente (Argentina)
2012-today
Internacional rebuilt their Beira-Rio stadium between 2011-2014, turning it into a marvelous arena. They also have reached the 2015 Copa Libertadores semi-finals, but one year later were relegated to the Serie B for the first time in their history. After their promotion in 2016, they reached the 3rd place in the 2018 Brasileirão and the 2nd place in the 2019 Copa do Brasil. Since 2000, Internacional have won 12 state leagues, notably a 6-consecutive title streak (2011-16).
GreNal
One of the fiercest derby rivalries in South America, the GreNal belongs to a place in Brazil that makes you feel like you're in another country, due to their cultural distance from the rest of Brazil. Located in the Southern state of Brazil, the GreNal derby city of Porto Alegre is neighbor to Buenos Aires in Argentina and Montevideo in Uruguay, and share with them the same cold temperatures and the football culture of guts and ferocity, besides the skills and technique. Their rivalry is crazy across the entire state, it's Blue (Grêmio) vs. Red (Internacional) everywhere, and it was elected by FourFourTwo the #8th biggest derby in the world. The GreNal of the century took place in the 1988 Brazilian League semi-finals, with a 2-1 victory of Inter. As of 2020, Internacional leads the derby stats, with 156 wins and 135 defeats.
To this day, Internacional has a fanbase of 6 million supporters, and a stadium attendance average of 24.000, as of 2019.
If you have any questions about Brazilian football, feel free to join us at futebol, where you'll be very welcomed!
submitted by majinmattossj2 to soccer [link] [comments]


2020.08.19 13:19 Myra_Watson Presence of Sealants in Children Between 6 to 12 Years Old Attending Public Schools, Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay, 2015 in International Journal of Clinical Studies & Medical Case Reports

Presence of Sealants in Children Between 6 to 12 Years Old Attending Public Schools, Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay, 2015 in International Journal of Clinical Studies & Medical Case Reports

https://preview.redd.it/qs19jtw21yh51.png?width=359&format=png&auto=webp&s=30e73575f1c741aaad33a80b6eece167d00dd363
Abstract A descriptive observational cross-sectional study was done to determine the presence of sealants in children between 6 to 12 years old attending public schools in Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay, 2015. After obtaining the informed consent of the parents of the children, the oral inspection was carried out. The study variable was the presence of sealant in posterior teeth. Only 2.91% of the 514 students inspected had sealants. Of the children who had sealants 26.7% had 8 years old, 60% correspond to female and 80% to urban area. The use of sealants as a prevention method in children was low.
Keywords: Sealants; Dental; Children; Prevalence
Introduction One of the oral diseases that can be prevented is caries, however, it continues to affect eighty percent of the child population in Latin America and the Caribbean [1]. Preventive treatment options for tooth decay include tooth brushing with a fluoride toothpaste, use of fluoride supplements and application of dental sealants and topical fluorides at dental clinics. Some evidence suggests that applying resin‐based sealants to the biting surfaces of permanent back teeth in children may reduce tooth decay in the permanent teeth of children by 3.7% over a two‐year period, and by 29% over a nine‐year period, when compared with fluoride varnish applications [2].
Dental sealants are applied to form a physical barrier that prevents growth of bacteria and accumulation of food particles in the grooves of back teeth [3]. Sealants can have a 68,52% of efficacy if it is done properly [4]. Children who have sealants are much less likely to develop tooth decay than children who do not have sealants [5]. In Paraguay, the program “Save the first Molar” that was promoted from 2010 to 2015 had in their operative activities, the application of sealants in children in the rural schools but there are not studies about the results of it. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of sealants in children between 6 and 12 years of age attending public schools in the city of Coronel Oviedo in 2015. Methodology
A descriptive observational cross-sectional study was carried out in male and female children between 6 and 12 years of age attending public schools in the city of Coronel Oviedo in 2015. Children from 10 institutions of the 1st to the 6th year were included whose parents or guardians signed an informed consent authorizing their participation in the investigation. We excluded the children who do not want to participate in the study.
For the determination of the sample size, the following parameters were considered: an expected prevalence of 6%, a confidence level of 95% and a precision of 2%, these data being loaded in the epiinfo version 3.5.1 program, yielding a size sample of 514. The sample was stratified by geographic zones: urban and rural, considering schools as conglomerates. Subsequently, by proportional allocation, the sample was distributed in the 10 schools.
For recruitment, a visit was made to the schools chosen for the study, permission was requested from the director of the institution for the corresponding delivery of informed consents. After obtaining the informed consent of the parents or guardians of the children in these schools, the oral inspection was carried out to complete the clinical record and odontogram. These data were used only for the purposes of the investigation. The study variable was the presence or absence of pit and fissure sealant in posterior teeth, also age, sex, and the zone of origin.
The materials necessary for the oral inspection were sterilized for each inspection day, being properly disinfected among patients with 2% glutaraldehyde. The inspection began on the upper right side, series 14 to 17, then we moved to the upper left side, series 24 to 27, then we went to the lower left side, series 34 to 37, and finally to the lower right side, series 44 to 47. The data was loaded into an Excel 2014 electronic spreadsheet and analyzed using Stata 14. Descriptive analysis was done and the results are presented in tables and graphs. We respected the autonomy of the patient, and used an informed consent.
For More information regarding Article https://ijclinmedcasereports.com/ijcmcr-rw-id-00057/ https://ijclinmedcasereports.com/pdf/IJCMCR-RW-00057.pdf
submitted by Myra_Watson to u/Myra_Watson [link] [comments]


2020.08.07 14:41 hoard Schumann resonance and it's connection to human consciousness

I posted this as a comment a few weeks back elswhere. I had multiple people message me stating I should create a new post for it. Figured I'd see if it got any traction here as it seems to pertain with multiple links that have been getting to the top.
Last year I had a subjective experience that I won't even begin to try to explain here. Long story short; it felt like my reality flipped 180 and I began to see things from a completely different perspective. It was... mindblowing. I attribute it to meditation and my slow ability to eventually release a lot of negative emotions I had bottled up inside. Since that time; my body... vibrates; like I can feel the individual cells in my body vibrate. Maybe it's my imagination, maybe it's not. Regardless; it's as real to me as any other subjective experience is.
Now this vibrating comes and goes but never really leaves. I spent months trying to figure out how/why and if there was anything it coincided with. I'd wake up at 2-3am and experience the most potent of the vibrations. Somewhere my searching lead me to the Schumann. 4-5 months in; I'm pretty confident the amount of vibration in my body is highly influenced by the Schumann. Correlation doesn't mean causation but I can "feel" if the Schumann is spiking without having to look at the graph.
My hypothesis;
We exist/swim in a field of energy (Electromagnetic Spectrum.) A resonating field within the range of 3hz up through 33.8hz.
The Schumann resonances are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, generated and excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. Schumann resonances are the principal background in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 3 Hz through 60 Hz, and appear as distinct peaks at extremely low frequencies (ELF) around 7.83 Hz (fundamental),14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz.
Now these frequency ranges are the same ranges the human brain/mind operate at.
Delta waves • Delta is the frequency range up to 4Hz. It tends to be the highest in amplitude and the slowest waves. It is seen normally in adults in slow-wave sleep. It is also seen normally in babies.
Theta waves • Theta is the frequency range from 4Hz to 7Hz. Theta is seen normally in young children. It may be seen in drowsiness or arousal in older children and adults; it can also be seen in meditation. This range has been associated with reports of relaxed, meditative, and creative states. ** Alpha waves** • Alpha is the frequency range from 7Hz to 13Hz. Hans Berger named the first rhythmic EEG activity he observed the "alpha wave". This was the "posterior basic rhythm,” seen in the posterior regions of the head on both sides, higher in amplitude on the dominant side. It emerges with closing of the eyes and with relaxation, and attenuates with eye opening or mental exertion. The posterior basic rhythm is actually slower than 8Hz in young children (therefore technically in the theta range).
Beta waves • Beta is the frequency range from 14Hz to about 30Hz. It is seen usually on both sides in symmetrical distribution and is most evident frontally. Beta activity is closely linked to motor behavior and is generally attenuated during active movements. Low-amplitude beta with multiple and varying frequencies is often associated with active, busy or anxious thinking and active concentration. It is the dominant rhythm in patients who are alert or anxious or who have their eyes open.
Gamma waves • is the frequency range approximately 30100Hz. Gamma rhythms are thought to represent binding of different populations of neurons together into a network for the purpose of carrying out a certain cognitive or motor function.
-Look into the studies of Buddhist Monks in deep meditative states.
Now this is where I get really "out there" with my theory.
We are energy Beings in a quantum state of infinite potential. This quantum state of ALL possibility would be what many would refer to as “God” or the “Godhead/the Essense of being." We don't live in a matter universe; rather in a field of potential; think "All is Mind" and we are but a lucid dream.
Our physical/matter mind is nothing more than a transceiver. Our senses decode the electromagnetic spectrum into something tangible, something understandable. Our “reality” is but a computer monitor receiving the real “truth” (the 1’s and 0’s of the universe/electromagnetic spectrum) and decoding it with our brain/senses into sight/sound/touch/hearing etc. Our brain functions by using electrical impulses sent by neurons. Electrical impulses creating chemical reactions (hormones) in relation to our perceived truth; creating the “reality” that we each subjectively live in. I believe "we" aren't actually the physical bodies. I believe our physical bodies are more like the character in a super complex VR video game. "We" exist in a higher dimension and these bodies are just the game character. Our ego is created and we tend to believe that we are our thoughts and that we are actually the body but in reality, we're just immersed in the dream.
The Schumann has been increasing in frequency for years. You can find charts online that prove this. In much the same way that a higher frequency (hz) wifi/cellular signal can carry more information is due to more "waves" to encode the data into; I believe the human consciousness is evolving to be able to receive more data/higher consciousness.
Aaaaanyway; That's my crazy idea while being as scientific as I can without getting too exoteric. At the same time I'm really becoming interested in the exoteric but that's for another conversation.
Look into Donald Hoffman, particularly his talks about his book titled, “The Case Against Reality” where he argues we didn’t evolve to see truth but we evolved for fitness. Here is a shorty but I’d definitely recommend his longer talks or podcasts.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a__OGBWfO-0
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_D._Hoffman
“If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.” ― Nikola Tesla
“The day science begins to study non-physical phenomena, it will make more progress in one decade than in all the previous centuries of its existence.” ― Nikola Tesla
“My brain is only a receiver, in the Universe there is a core from which we obtain knowledge, strength and inspiration. I have not penetrated into the secrets of this core, but I know that it exists.” ― Nikola Tesla
Source - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schumann_resonances
Source - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroencephalography#Wave_patterns
Source - https://www.britannica.com/story/how-does-wi-fi-work
Source - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum
submitted by hoard to Echerdex [link] [comments]


2020.08.07 04:41 hoard Schumann resonance and it's connection to human consciousness

I posted this as a comment a few weeks back. I had multiple people message me stating I should create a new post for it. Here you are.
Last year I had a subjective experience that I won't even begin to try to explain here. Long story short; it felt like my reality flipped 180 and I began to see things from a completely different perspective. It was... mindblowing. I attribute it to meditation and my slow ability to eventually release a lot of negative emotions I had bottled up inside. Since that time; my body... vibrates; like I can feel the individual cells in my body vibrate. Maybe it's my imagination, maybe it's not. Regardless; it's as real to me as any other subjective experience is.
Now this vibrating comes and goes but never really leaves. I spent months trying to figure out how/why and if there was anything it coincided with. I'd wake up at 2-3am and experience the most potent of the vibrations. Somewhere my searching lead me to the Schumann. 4-5 months in; I'm pretty confident the amount of vibration in my body is highly influenced by the Schumann. Correlation doesn't mean causation but I can "feel" if the Schumann is spiking without having to look at the graph.
My hypothesis;
We exist/swim in a field of energy (Electromagnetic Spectrum.) A resonating field within the range of 3hz up through 33.8hz.
The Schumann resonances are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, generated and excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. Schumann resonances are the principal background in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 3 Hz through 60 Hz, and appear as distinct peaks at extremely low frequencies (ELF) around 7.83 Hz (fundamental),14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz.
Now these frequency ranges are the same ranges the human brain/mind operate at.
Delta waves • Delta is the frequency range up to 4Hz. It tends to be the highest in amplitude and the slowest waves. It is seen normally in adults in slow-wave sleep. It is also seen normally in babies.
Theta waves • Theta is the frequency range from 4Hz to 7Hz. Theta is seen normally in young children. It may be seen in drowsiness or arousal in older children and adults; it can also be seen in meditation. This range has been associated with reports of relaxed, meditative, and creative states. ** Alpha waves** • Alpha is the frequency range from 7Hz to 13Hz. Hans Berger named the first rhythmic EEG activity he observed the "alpha wave". This was the "posterior basic rhythm,” seen in the posterior regions of the head on both sides, higher in amplitude on the dominant side. It emerges with closing of the eyes and with relaxation, and attenuates with eye opening or mental exertion. The posterior basic rhythm is actually slower than 8Hz in young children (therefore technically in the theta range).
Beta waves • Beta is the frequency range from 14Hz to about 30Hz. It is seen usually on both sides in symmetrical distribution and is most evident frontally. Beta activity is closely linked to motor behavior and is generally attenuated during active movements. Low-amplitude beta with multiple and varying frequencies is often associated with active, busy or anxious thinking and active concentration. It is the dominant rhythm in patients who are alert or anxious or who have their eyes open.
Gamma waves • is the frequency range approximately 30100Hz. Gamma rhythms are thought to represent binding of different populations of neurons together into a network for the purpose of carrying out a certain cognitive or motor function.
-Look into the studies of Buddhist Monks in deep meditative states.
Now this is where I get really "out there" with my theory.
We are energy Beings in a quantum state of infinite potential. This quantum state of ALL possibility would be what many would refer to as “God” or the “Godhead/the Essense of being." We don't live in a matter universe; rather in a field of potential; think "All is Mind" and we are but a lucid dream.
Our physical/matter mind is nothing more than a transceiver. Our senses decode the electromagnetic spectrum into something tangible, something understandable. Our “reality” is but a computer monitor receiving the real “truth” (the 1’s and 0’s of the universe/electromagnetic spectrum) and decoding it with our brain/senses into sight/sound/touch/hearing etc. Our brain functions by using electrical impulses sent by neurons. Electrical impulses creating chemical reactions (hormones) in relation to our perceived truth; creating the “reality” that we each subjectively live in. I believe "we" aren't actually the physical bodies. I believe our physical bodies are more like the character in a super complex VR video game. "We" exist in a higher dimension and these bodies are just the game character. Our ego is created and we tend to believe that we are our thoughts and that we are actually the body but in reality, we're just immersed in the dream.
The Schumann has been increasing in frequency for years. You can find charts online that prove this. In much the same way that a higher frequency (hz) wifi/cellular signal can carry more information is due to more "waves" to encode the data into; I believe the human consciousness is evolving to be able to receive more data/higher consciousness.
Aaaaanyway; That's my crazy idea while being as scientific as I can without getting too exoteric. At the same time I'm really becoming interested in the exoteric but that's for another conversation.
Look into Donald Hoffman, particularly his talks about his book titled, “The Case Against Reality” where he argues we didn’t evolve to see truth but we evolved for fitness. Here is a shorty but I’d definitely recommend his longer talks or podcasts.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a__OGBWfO-0
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_D._Hoffman
“If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.” ― Nikola Tesla
“The day science begins to study non-physical phenomena, it will make more progress in one decade than in all the previous centuries of its existence.” ― Nikola Tesla
“My brain is only a receiver, in the Universe there is a core from which we obtain knowledge, strength and inspiration. I have not penetrated into the secrets of this core, but I know that it exists.” ― Nikola Tesla
Source - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schumann_resonances
Source - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroencephalography#Wave_patterns
Source - https://www.britannica.com/story/how-does-wi-fi-work
Source - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum
submitted by hoard to schumannresonance [link] [comments]


2020.08.07 03:58 hoard Schumann resonances and it's ties to human consciousness.

Last year I had a subjective experience that I won't even begin to try to explain here. Long story short; it felt like my reality flipped 180 and I began to see things from a completely different perspective. It was... mindblowing. I attribute it to meditation and my slow ability to eventually release a lot of negative emotions I had bottled up inside. Since that time; my body... vibrates; like I can feel the individual cells in my body vibrate. Maybe it's my imagination, maybe it's not. Regardless; it's as real to me as any other subjective experience is.
Now this vibrating comes and goes but never really leaves. I spent months trying to figure out how/why and if there was anything it coincided with. I'd wake up at 2-3am and experience the most potent of the vibrations. Somewhere my searching lead me to the Schumann. 4-5 months in; I'm pretty confident the amount of vibration in my body is highly influenced by the Schumann. Correlation doesn't mean causation but I can "feel" if the Schumann is spiking without having to look at the graph.
My hypothesis;
We exist/swim in a field of energy (Electromagnetic Spectrum.) A resonating field within the range of 3hz up through 33.8hz.
The Schumann resonances are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, generated and excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. Schumann resonances are the principal background in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum from 3 Hz through 60 Hz, and appear as distinct peaks at extremely low frequencies (ELF) around 7.83 Hz (fundamental),14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz.
Now these frequency ranges are the same ranges the human brain/mind operate at.
Delta waves • Delta is the frequency range up to 4Hz. It tends to be the highest in amplitude and the slowest waves. It is seen normally in adults in slow-wave sleep. It is also seen normally in babies.
Theta waves • Theta is the frequency range from 4Hz to 7Hz. Theta is seen normally in young children. It may be seen in drowsiness or arousal in older children and adults; it can also be seen in meditation. This range has been associated with reports of relaxed, meditative, and creative states.
Alpha waves • Alpha is the frequency range from 7Hz to 13Hz. Hans Berger named the first rhythmic EEG activity he observed the "alpha wave". This was the "posterior basic rhythm,” seen in the posterior regions of the head on both sides, higher in amplitude on the dominant side. It emerges with closing of the eyes and with relaxation, and attenuates with eye opening or mental exertion. The posterior basic rhythm is actually slower than 8Hz in young children (therefore technically in the theta range).
Beta waves • Beta is the frequency range from 14Hz to about 30Hz. It is seen usually on both sides in symmetrical distribution and is most evident frontally. Beta activity is closely linked to motor behavior and is generally attenuated during active movements. Low-amplitude beta with multiple and varying frequencies is often associated with active, busy or anxious thinking and active concentration. It is the dominant rhythm in patients who are alert or anxious or who have their eyes open.
Gamma waves • is the frequency range approximately 30100Hz. Gamma rhythms are thought to represent binding of different populations of neurons together into a network for the purpose of carrying out a certain cognitive or motor function.
-Look into the studies of Buddhist Monks in deep meditative states.
Now this is where I get really "out there" with my theory.
We are energy Beings in a quantum state of infinite potential. This quantum state of ALL possibility would be what many would refer to as “God” or the “Godhead/the Essense of being." We don't live in a matter universe; rather in a field of potential; think "All is Mind" and we are but a lucid dream.
Our physical/matter mind is nothing more than a transceiver. Our senses decode the electromagnetic spectrum into something tangible, something understandable. Our “reality” is but a computer monitor receiving the real “truth” (the 1’s and 0’s of the universe/electromagnetic spectrum) and decoding it with our brain/senses into sight/sound/touch/hearing etc. Our brain functions by using electrical impulses sent by neurons. Electrical impulses creating chemical reactions (hormones) in relation to our perceived truth; creating the “reality” that we each subjectively live in. I believe "we" aren't actually the physical bodies. I believe our physical bodies are more like the character in a super complex VR video game. "We" exist in a higher dimension and these bodies are just the game character. Our ego is created and we tend to believe that we are our thoughts and that we are actually the body but in reality, we're just immersed in the dream.
The Schumann has been increasing in frequency for years. You can find charts online that prove this. In much the same way that a higher frequency (hz) wifi/cellular signal can carry more information is due to more "waves" to encode the data into; I believe the human consciousness is evolving to be able to receive more data/higher consciousness.
Aaaaanyway; That's my crazy idea while being as scientific as I can without getting too exoteric. At the same time I'm really becoming interested in the exoteric but that's for another conversation.
Look into Donald Hoffman, particularly his talks about his book titled, “The Case Against Reality” where he argues we didn’t evolve to see truth but we evolved for fitness. Here is a shorty but I’d definitely recommend his longer talks or podcasts.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a__OGBWfO-0
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donald_D._Hoffman
“If you want to find the secrets of the universe, think in terms of energy, frequency and vibration.” ― Nikola Tesla
“The day science begins to study non-physical phenomena, it will make more progress in one decade than in all the previous centuries of its existence.” ― Nikola Tesla
“My brain is only a receiver, in the Universe there is a core from which we obtain knowledge, strength and inspiration. I have not penetrated into the secrets of this core, but I know that it exists.” ― Nikola Tesla
Source - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Schumann_resonances
Source - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroencephalography#Wave_patterns
Source - https://www.britannica.com/story/how-does-wi-fi-work
Source - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_spectrum
submitted by hoard to outsideofthebox [link] [comments]


2020.08.04 04:19 waynerad Three new reinforcement learning methods aim to improve AI in gaming and beyond

  1. "We focus on developing game agents that learn to genuinely collaborate in teams with human players."
"We want a technique that provides us not just with a prediction but also the associated degree of certainty." "We provide an analysis of Random Network Distillation (RND), a successful technique for estimating the confidence of a deep learning model."
"The version of RND we analyze maintains an uncertainty model separate from the model making predictions." "We have two types of neural networks: the predictor and the prior." "Roughly speaking, theoretical results in the paper show that the gap between prior and predictor is a good indication of how certain the model should be about its outputs. "The variance returned by RND always overestimates the Bayesian posterior variance. This means that while RND can return uncertainties larger than necessary, it won't become overconfident. Second, we show that the uncertainties concentrate, that is they eventually become small after the model has been trained on multiple observations. In other words, the model becomes more certain about its predictions as we see more and more data."
  1. "In many games, players have partial observability of the world around them. To act in these games requires players to recall items, locations, and other players that are currently out of sight but have been seen earlier in the game. Typically, deep reinforcement learning agents have handled this by incorporating recurrent layers (such as LSTMs or GRUs) or the ability to read and write to external memory as in the case of differential neural computers (DNCs)."
"If I see a fire exit when moving through a new building, I may need to later recall where it was regardless of what I have seen or done since." "We propose the use of order-invariant aggregators (the sum or max of values seen so far) in the agent's policy network to overcome this issue."
  1. "Most current reinforcement learning work, and the majority of RL agents trained for video game applications, are optimized for a single game scenario. However, a key aspect of human-like gameplay is the ability to continuously learn and adapt to new challenges." "We developed a flexible new approach that enables agents to learn to explore and rapidly adapt to a given task or scenario."
"Our new approach introduces a flexible encoder-decoder architecture to model the agent's belief distribution and learns to act optimally by conditioning its policy on the current belief. We demonstrate that this leads to a powerful and flexible solution that achieves Bayes-optimal behavior -- agents that behave optimally given their current belief -- on several research tasks."
https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/research/blog/three-new-reinforcement-learning-methods-aim-to-improve-ai-in-gaming-and-beyond/
submitted by waynerad to u/waynerad [link] [comments]


2020.08.01 17:58 BacklinksInComment It is tiger while to wall

It is woodpeckers while to stuff

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2020.07.31 03:32 drscottstiffey7 Chiropractic Columbia

Pro Active Chiropractic Center – Columbia and Scott Stiffey DC are satisfied to report that the knee torment office has a restored site which better reflects data about the different associations which they perform. The site is enlightening about such injuries or conditions which can cause torment in and around the knee. The workplace besides presents data about a touch of the approach and techniques which can offer facilitating to this particular kind of pain.
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2020.07.30 05:40 altovaliriano Um Julgamento de Sete para Cersei Lannister

Ao final de A Dança dos Dragões, Kevan Lannister nos conta que Cersei finalmente conseguiu nomear à guarda real o campeão invocado por Qyburn (Sor Robert Forte) e requisitou à Fé que, ao invés de ser julgada por sete juízes como ocorreu a Margaery, lhe seja conferido a provar sua inocência via julgamento por combate:
Temos duas rainhas para julgar por alta traição, como devem se lembrar. Minha sobrinha escolheu julgamento por combate, segundo me informou. Sor Robert Forte será seu campeão.
(ADWD, Epílogo)
A rainha vinha lutando para arranjar um campeão decente, haja vista que sua guarda real estava desfalcada, algo que Cersei pensava justamente em usar contra Margaery Tyrell.
Como rainha, sua honra tem de ser defendida por um cavaleiro da Guarda Real. Ora, qualquer criança em Westeros sabe como o Príncipe Aemon, o Cavaleiro do Dragão, foi o campeão de sua irmã, a Rainha Naerys, contra as acusações de Sor Morghil. Mas com Sor Loras tão gravemente ferido, temo que o papel de Príncipe Aemon tenha de cair sobre um de seus Irmãos Juramentados – encolheu os ombros. – Mas quem? Sor Arys e Sor Balon andam longe, em Dorne, Jaime está em Correrrio, e Sor Osmund é irmão do homem que a acusa, o que deixa apenas... Oh, puxa…
Boros Blount e Meryn Trant – Senhora Taena soltou uma gargalhada.
(AFFC, Cersei X)
Afinal, Blont e Trant eram considerados ambos péssimas opções.
Margaery não respondeu de imediato, mas seus olhos castanhos estreitaram-se com suspeita.
Blount ou Trant – disse por fim. – Teria de ser um deles. Gostaria disso, não? Osney Kettleblack faria qualquer um deles em pedaços.
(AFFC, Cersei X)
Entretanto, com Sor Robert a seu lado as chances de Cersei vencer seu julgamento por combate aumentam significativamente, de forma que ela poderia passar a perna na Fé e no Alto Septão. Alguém poderia arguir que a Fé gostaria de inspecionar o campeão de Cersei antes de permitir que ele entre no julgamento, porém isso seria completamente fora das regras que conhecemos até agora.
Portanto, qualquer inovação neste sentido poderia dar argumentos aos apoiadores do regime Lannister contra a transparência e legalidade do julgamento, especialmente quando se têm em mente que Cersei será julgada antes de Margaery (no epílogo, a data de Cersei foi marcada, mas não há menção sobre a de Margaery). A invenção de novas regras para Cersei poderia deixar os Tyrell e seus vassalos (e seus exércitos) pouco à vontade sobre o que esperar no julgamento de Margaery, para dizer o mínimo.
Entretanto, existe uma coisa que está no direito da Fé fazer para minar as chances de Cersei vencer com escolha de um campeão que não pode morrer, ao mesmo tempo em que aumenta-se a legitimidade e sacralidade do julgamento por combate, ao invés de reduzi-la.
Dunk estava perdido.
Vossa Graça, meus senhores – disse, dirigindo-se para o estrado. – Não entendo. O que é esse julgamento de sete?
O Príncipe Baelor se mexeu com desconforto em seu assento.
É outra forma de julgamento por combate. Antigo, raramente invocado. Veio do Mar Estreito com os ândalos e os sete deuses. Em qualquer julgamento por combate, o acusado e o acusador pedem aos deuses que decidam a questão entre eles. Os ândalos acreditavam que se sete campeões lutassem de cada lado, os deuses, sendo assim honrados, ficariam mais dispostos a intervir e garantir que o resultado justo fosse alcançado.
(O Cavaleiro Andante)
Os eventos descritos no conto ‘O Cavaleiro Andante’ ocorrem aproximadamente cem anos antes de ‘As Crônicas de Gelo e Fogo’ e já nessa época é dito que um julgamento dos Sete não ocorria “há mais de cem anos”. Porém, o conto foi lançado em 1998, antes mesmo do lançamento de A Fúria dos Reis, o que fortalece a impressão de que Martin apenas estava ensaiando o acontecimento para lança-lo em algum momento nas ‘Crônicas’.
Entretanto, quatro livros foram lançados e Martin nunca trasladou o evento dos Contos de Dunk e Egg para a saga principal. O que nos leva a crer que ele o fará agora? Bem, aparentemente, por que o novo Alto Septão gosta de honrar o número sagrados dos ândalos:
A delegação da Fé era liderada por seu velho amigo, Septão Raynard. Seis dos Filhos do Guerreiro escoltaram-no pela cidade; juntos faziam sete, um número sagrado e favorável. O novo Alto Septão, ou Alto Pardal, como o Rapaz Lua o apelidara, fazia tudo em grupos de sete.
(AFFC, Cersei VIII)
E de fato, o Alto Pardal já inovou no julgamento de Margaery Tyrell, que será julgada por sete juízes, não por coincidência, mas em referência explícita ao número sagrado dos ândalos:
Tommen ama tanto sua pequena rainha, Vossa Santidade, que temo possa ser difícil para ele ou seus senhores julgá-la com justiça. Talvez o julgamento deva ser conduzido pela Fé?
O Alto Pardal uniu suas mãos magras.
Tive essa mesma ideia, Vossa Graça. Tal como Maegor, o Cruel, tirou um dia as espadas da Fé, assim Jaehaerys, o Conciliador, nos privou das balanças da justiça. E, no entanto, quem é verdadeiramente digno de julgar uma rainha, além dos Sete no Céu e dos devotos na terra? Um número sagrado de sete juízes presidirá este caso. Três serão do seu sexo, feminino. Uma donzela, uma mãe e uma velha. Quem poderia estar mais preparado para julgar a imoralidade das mulheres?
Assim, não seria fora do personagem do Alto Pardal poderia invocar um Julgamento de Sete caso sentisse que Cersei estaria de alguma forma tentando trapacear na escolha do campeão. Afinal, quando Cersei ordenou que Osney Kettleblack confessasse ter se deitado com Margaery, o Alto Pardal foi rápido em perceber que havia algo de errado e tomar as rédeas da situação, dentro de suas competências:
Ele lhe disse a verdade. Veio ter com você de livre e espontânea vontade e confessou seus pecados.
Sim. Ele fez isso. Já ouvi muitos homens confessarem, Vossa Graça, mas raramente ouvi um homem tão contente por ser tão culpado.
(AFFC, Cersei X)
O que é mais marcante neste caso é a forma com a qual o Alto Pardal vinha conduzindo a conversa com Cersei. Ao ficarmos sabendo momentos depois que ele ouvia Cersei pedir clemência por Margaery enquanto já havia obtido a confissão de Kettleblack, percebemos a natureza perniciosa e astuta do novo Alto Septão. E a escolha de um Julgamento de Sete tem diversos desdobramentos que poderiam complicar ainda mais a absolvição de Cersei sem que ninguém pudesse dizer que o Alto Pardal a estava perseguindo ou encurralando maliciosamente.
Terei que lutar contra sete homens, então? – Dunk perguntou, desesperado.
Não sozinho, sor – o Príncipe Maekar respondeu, impaciente. – Não banque o tolo, não vai adiantar. Deve ser sete contra sete. Precisa encontrar mais seis cavaleiros para lutar ao seu lado.
(O Cavaleiro Andante)
Dessa forma, Sor Robert não poderia defender sozinho a honra da Rainha. Haveria de ter mais cavaleiros. E como Rainha, Cersei somente poderia lançar mão dos homens da Guarda Real, como ela e o Alto Pardal estavam em consenso.
[Cersei] – Isto será o melhor. Com certeza, Margaery tem o direito de exigir que sua culpa ou inocência seja provada por combate judiciário. Se assim for, seu campeão deve ser um dos Sete de Tommen.
[Alto Pardal] – Os Cavaleiros da Guarda Real serviram como os legítimos campeões do rei e da rainha desde o tempo de Aegon, o Conquistador. A Coroa e a Fé falam a uma só voz quanto a isto.
(AFFC, Cersei X)
Porém, fazer com que os Sete Cavaleiros da Guarda Real compareçam a Porto Real não será possível. Jaime e Balon Swann estarão em missões próprias sem comunicação direta com Porto Real. Loras está mortalmente ferido em Pedra do Dragão. Dessa forma, só restariam a Cersei 4 cavaleiros: Robert Forte, Meryn Trant, Boros Blount e Osmund Kettleblack.
Só que a situação de Sor Osmund também é complexa, haja vista que “Sor Kevan jogara Osmund Kettleblack (e seu irmão Osfryd) nos calabouços na mesma hora em que Cersei confessara que tomara os dois homens como amantes” e o plano é que eles sejam enviados “a Muralha, se admitirem sua culpa. Se a negarem, podem encarar Sor Robert.” (ADWD, Epílogo).
Assim, mesmo que por alguma ventura Sor Osmund venha a lutar no julgamento de Cersei seria difícil de acreditar que ele lutaria até a morte para defender a rainha. E as regras do julgamento de Sete permitem que um cavaleiro se renda ao invés de lutar até a morte.
Se Sor Duncan for morto, significará que os deuses o julgaram culpado, e a disputa estará acabada. Se ambos os acusadores forem mortos ou retirarem as acusações, significará o mesmo. De outro modo, todos os sete de um lado ou do outro deverão perecer ou se render para que o julgamento termine.
(O Cavaleiro Andante)
De todo modo, a questão é que Cersei teria que destituir Jaime, Balon e Loras (e talvez Osmund) e arranjar 3 (ou 4) novos guardas reais para entrar no julgamento, o que parece especialmente difícil no momento atual.
Especialmente se Mace Tyrell se tornar regente de Tommen com a morte de Kevan Lannister, pois aí a seleção dos guardas reais necessariamente passaria por seu crivo. Isso dificultaria que Cersei arranjasse mercenários (como Bronn), ávidos para ganhar o favor da Rainha. Sem falar que Mace dificilmente aceitaria a destituição de seu filho da guarda real (mas a depender das compensações oferecidas pode pensar melhor).
A questão é que estas dificuldades seriam extremamente convenientes para a Fé, uma vez que o não preenchimento destes requisitos poderia acabar com o julgamento antes mesmo de ele começar, o que tornaria a nomeação de Sor Robert completamente inútil.
Ou seja, se Cersei não conseguir que a guarda real inteira compareça a seu julgamento, ou não consiga formar uma nova guarda, será considerada culpada de todos os crimes, antes mesmo que qualquer combate se realize.
Vossa Graça, meus senhores – ele disse –, e se ninguém quiser ficar ao meu lado?
Maekar Targaryen olhou para ele friamente.
Se a causa é justa, bons homens lutarão por ela. Se não conseguir encontrar campeões, sor, significa que é culpado. Pode algo ser mais claro?
(O Cavaleiro Andante)
Aqui me parece haver duas possibilidades.
A primeira é que Cersei não consiga suprir a regra, seja condenada, tenha sua execução agendada para depois do julgamento de Margaery, mas durante este evento a Rainha Mãe execute a Conspiração do Fogovivo 2.0. Dessa forma, não veríamos Sor Robert em ação no julgamento, mas ele seria poupado para posteriores atos de grande violência.
A segunda é que Cersei consiga arranjar os guardas reais reminiscentes entre homens de lealdade duvidosa e Mace Tyrell os aprove tanto por pressão, quanto por acreditar que eles não sobreviverão ao julgamento, ou mesmo que se renderão ao primeiro sinal de dificuldade. Entretanto, Sor Robert será capaz de vencer praticamente sozinho todos os sete campeões da Fé, em um feito sobrehumano de combate. E assim a Rainha estará livre, mas ainda assim executaria a Conspiração do Fogovivo 2.0.
.
O que vocês acham? Acham que poderá acontecer assim?
Pensam que Sor Osmund será permitido a lutar? Cersei conseguiria achar os guardas reais restantes? Quem seriam possíveis candidatos à nova guarda de Cersei?
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2020.07.28 15:08 nuke_ur_acc_every6mo Eleições americanas, big brains bigger mouths, R v Dudley and Stephens, uma consulta à comunidade

Um caso famosíssimo paradigmático sobre os limites morais do homicídio é o caso R v Dudley and Stephens -- também conhecido como "lifeboat case".
Essencialmente é uma questão em torno de se é moralmente válida a relação contratual contraída sem vício de vontade que pode exigir como prestação o sacrifício da própria vida.
Se duas pessoas quiserem jogar truco valendo o toba ou roleta russa valendo dez pila, elas podem? Entrando no jogo, podem desistir quando estiverem na iminência de perder?
Esse tópico carrega uma proposta pra moderação: criar um tópico onde a comunidade pode colocar o toba na reta.
Como inicial sugiro "eleição americana a 3 de novembro: quem vence o colégio eleitoral?" e aos que errarem o resultado, o simbólico "homicídio" da rede de opiniões -- um ban permanente de participação daquela conta (handle, tag, username) no sub.
Antecipo questões razoáveis:
  1. Isso não é uma medida autoritária que mancharia a imagem do único sub livre das américas?
Não. Repare que ninguém será OBRIGADO a participar do tópico. É uma decisão que o usuário toma no santuário imperturbável de sua consciência, perfeitamente ciente das consequências.
  1. Essa regra especial não tem o potencial de limitar a participação e interação dos usuários do sub em dividir suas opiniões?
Não. Essa regra teria validade limitada em escopo para o tópico em questão. O tópico, inclusive, não precisa conter nenhuma discussão ou intercâmbio de ideias que podem encontrar guarida tranquilamente em outros tópicos. Esse tópico será destinado àqueles que quiserem manifestar suas "apostas" e estiverem confiantes das suas crenças. Pode, inclusive, estimular uma cultura de responsabilidade e fidelidade para a participação no sub de agora em diante.
  1. Emitir uma opinião errada e ser banido do sub é a definição de censura!
Não. Em primeiro lugar, o ban permanente é restrito à conta do reddit (handle, tag, username, como quiser chamar). Ele não será estendido à pessoa que opera a conta e portanto não será aplicada a regra de evasão de ban a quem tiver a conta banida por esse instrumento e tornar a participar do sub. Pessoas veiculam opiniões e portanto pessoas são passíveis de censura. Usernames são meramente ferramentas. O propósito aqui é educativo, bragging rights, azucrinar, aloprar, como quiser entender. E, reitero, a participação em novas contas é estimulada, afinal, em se realizando o propósito educativo, os participantes retornarão ao sub "mais educados".
  1. Como garantir que a participação no tópico se deu com a propriedade devida para garantir a vinculação ao "contrato"?
A suposição aqui é que se você tá usando reddit você é grandinho pra celebrar seus contratos. É possível estudar junto com a moderação alguma espécie de confirmação: responder ao próprio comentário com o seu username ou outra coisa para garantir que houve reflexão e que a pessoa está postando na conta correta.
  1. Como garantir que edits ou contas deletadas não escapem ao propósito educativo?
A conta deletada por óbvio não participará mais do sub de qualquer forma, de modo que o cumprimento do contrato fica prejudicado. Já quanto a edits, é possível estabelecer regra que permita edits até uma determinada data limite, seja anterior à eleição, seja posterior ao comentário, ambos ou ainda que qualquer edit enseje o ban permanente (no take-backsies policy).
  1. Por que a moderação precisa se envolver nisso afinal? Não podem os usuários celebrarem esses termos e aposta entre si?
A opção de usar a moderação como intermediador cabe de dois pontos principais: i) somente a moderação pode efetivamente banir um username de participação no sub. A promessa de "deixar de participar naquela conta", ainda que entre usuários honestos promova o mesmo resultado, não é o mesmo que banir do sub e limita o potencial educativo do experimento porque limita a publicidade ao usr das ferramentas de auditoria dos modlogs públicos; e ii) para o caso de um usuário desonesto que não intente cumprir o contrato, a medida de ter um intermediador que garanta o cumprimento evita uma situação onde, pelo direito, um usuário poderia doxxar outro, invadir sua residência/equipamentos e deletar a conta.
  1. Essa ideia é estúpida: não ganho nada se acertar e sou banido do sub se perder.
Desperte seu lado adrenaline junkie! Ademais, você ganha o carteiraço pra dizer que é big brain em contraste com os smol brain big mouth. A gente se xinga pra caralho aqui. Coloca seu desafeto love-hate nessa sinuca de vale toba. E finalmente, reciclar as contas é sempre bom. Repara na quantidade de "cancelamento" que acontece por todo o lugar afetando a vida profissional das pessoas -- e que só tende a escalar no Brasil até 2022.
submitted by nuke_ur_acc_every6mo to brasilivre [link] [comments]


2020.07.28 11:37 BacklinksInComment It-will-be-reptiles-to-process

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2020.07.27 18:12 EmetEnjoy Bitcoin superó de manera sostenida el precio de 10.000 dólares

Bitcoin superó de manera sostenida el precio de 10.000 dólares
Al cierre de esta nota el precio del BTC lograba 10.264 USD. Pero ¿Por qué ha luchado tanto en los últimos meses cuando el oro se ha disparado a sus máximos históricos? Te dejamos un recuento y perspectiva para que uses esta información en Faswet y logres los mejores rendimientos.
https://preview.redd.it/erhip82ecfd51.png?width=987&format=png&auto=webp&s=fdf710913d2e3b42916d743dc93a5fe4f90bf640
Julio 27.- Este domingo 26 de julio pasó lo que se venía esperando hace un buen tiempo: Bitcoin superó la barrera de los 10.000 dólares y luego de un par de horas empezó a buscar un piso definido sobre este precio de manera estable. Veamos de manera sucinta el comportamiento de la reina de las criptomonedas y su perspectiva según la lectura de algunos analistas junto a la revisión de los gráficos.

Comportamiento de la economía criptográfica

A principios de este año, los inversores en activos digitales agotaban los billones de dólares de las inyecciones de dinero de bancos centrales en respuesta a la recesión mundial inducida por el coronavirus.
Lo que se sabía era que la avalancha de liquidez llevaría a la inflación, por lo tanto, aumentaría los precios tanto del oro, usado históricamente como cobertura contra la caída de los precios de monedas tradicionales, y a su vez del Bitcoin, conocido también como “oro digital” debido a su escaso suministro.
Sin embargo, desde finales de abril, cuando disminuyeron los giros del mercado relacionados con la enfermedad, el precio del Bitcoin se fue quedando detrás del oro, frustrando las expectativas de inversión de la criptomoneda que se esperaban.

Precios del oro frente a Bitcoin

Los precios del oro aumentaron durante la semana pasada superando el máximo histórico de cierre de 1,891.90 USD por onza alcanzado en 2011, y ahora se cotiza a un máximo intradiario récord de 1,940 USD por onza. Su máximo anterior de 1,921 USD se alcanzó en septiembre de 2011.
Mientras tanto, Bitcoin se ha estancado en un estrecho rango de negociación desde abril y solo la pasada noche del domingo alcanzó los 10,200 USD, un nivel lejano de su máximo histórico de 20,000 USD alcanzado en 2017.
Según inversores y analistas esto es normal porque Bitcoin es mucho menos maduro que el oro y, por lo tanto, carecer de un historial creíble como cobertura de la inflación. Por lo tanto, tiene dificultades para atraer ofertas de soporte a pesar de un aumento reciente en las expectativas de inflación.
La sensibilidad a la inflación de Bitcoin no ha sido puesta a prueba en la última década, pues no se ha dado una presión sostenida sobre los precios.
Esto significa un cambio de tono de hace unos meses, cuando la exageración alcista sobre Bitcoin era tan popular que eliminó cualquier reserva sobre el limitado historial comercial de Bitcoin o el tamaño del mercado.
De otro lado el ETH, la segunda criptomoneda más grande después de Bitcoin, ha ganado un 150% este año, mientras Bitcoin ha subido un 42% en 2020.
Debe tenerse en cuenta que Bitcoin tiene su propia microeconomía exclusiva dentro de la criptografía, incluidos los ciclos de dificultad de minería, el entorno regulatorio cambiante y otros factores que tienen poco que ver con la inflación, que terminan afectando su movimiento.

Inflación y Bitcoin

La expectativa de inflación de Estados Unidos aumentó a 1.51%, la más alta desde febrero, desde el 0,5% el 19 de marzo, ya que el balance de la Reserva Federal se expandió en más de 3 billones USD.
Bitcoin inicialmente aumentó junto con el aumento en las expectativas de inflación. El movimiento de 3,867 USD a 10,000 USD visto en dos meses a mediados de mayo probablemente fue impulsado por la narrativa alcista que rodeó el halving.
Desde entonces, la criptomoneda estuvo bloqueada en el rango de 9,000 USD a 10,000 USD hasta el 26 de julio, mientras que las expectativas de inflación continuaron aumentando.
Mientras tanto, el oro aumentó en un promedio del 15% en términos reales o ajustados a la inflación en los ocho años entre 1974 y 2008, cuando la inflación anual de los Estados Unidos, medida por el índice de precios al consumidor, fue superior al 5%.
El precio del oro se duplicó a alrededor de 1,920 USD desde 850 USD en los tres años posteriores al colapso de mediados de 2008, ya que las inyecciones de liquidez de emergencia de la FED elevaron las expectativas de inflación.
La historia del oro como cobertura de la inflación es bien conocida y es una cobertura de larga data contra las catástrofes. Bitcoin no lo es aún, se encuentra en periodo de prueba por decirlo de alguna manera.
De hecho, toda la existencia de Bitcoin, desde su lanzamiento a principios de 2009, se ha desarrollado en un entorno de baja inflación.
La tasa de inflación de equilibrio a 10 años cayó de 1.6% a -0.62% en dos años hasta 2013, y se mantuvo estancada en un rango entre 0% y 0.8% de 2014 a enero de 2020. Eso está muy por debajo del objetivo de 2% de la FED para inflación anual, indica el rastreo de la información.
El mercado del oro, en alrededor de $10 billones, tiene suficiente profundidad y liquidez para absorber grandes entradas relacionadas con cobertura o refugio. La capitalización de mercado de Bitcoin es mucho menor, con $189 mil millones de dólares.
Analistas como Gavin Smit de Panxora han hecho un comparativo bastante adecuado para explicar el tema: “El oro es como un camión cisterna, mientras que Bitcoin es mucho más como una lancha rápida”.
Sin embargo, revisando de tres a cinco años, se verá la trayectoria de ambos, y sabremos que fueron una buena jugada frente a la inflación.
Otro factor que impide que las instituciones y otros inversores de mercados tradicionales hagan inversiones sostenidas en bitcoin es la creencia de que su precio y los fundamentos de la red no están conectados como el oro con el destino de la economía global, aún.
Es una reticencia propia de los activos digitales a que sean desvinculados al mundo real.
Esto se refleja en que los bancos centrales no inviertan en bitcoin, y que compren oro en momentos de estrés, porque fueron compradores netos durante el primer trimestre afectado por el virus.
La realidad es que ningún activo ha logrado los rendimientos del oro y el rally de Bitcoin está en proceso de que se construya de manera sólida.

Faswet te acerca a la realidad digital

Como acabamos de ver Bitcoin está en el camino de convertirse en lo que muchos conocedores del mercado tradicional y digital vienen prediciendo desde hace más de 5 años: Bitcoin será el oro digital y reserva para momentos de crisis.
Falta un poco en el recorrido de la confianza, pero se va logrando con cada paso dado al interior de proyectos como el que Emet pone a disposición de sus usuarios por medio de Faswet.
Como anotábamos la semana pasada, esta información debe ser usada en favor de los usuarios de criptomonedas. No te pierdas la oportunidad histórica de hacer parte del cambio más importante de la economía. Ingresa a Faswet y sácale provecho: https://faswet.com/es
submitted by EmetEnjoy to u/EmetEnjoy [link] [comments]


2020.07.27 18:07 EmetEnjoy Bitcoin superó de manera sostenida el precio de 10.000 dólares

Bitcoin superó de manera sostenida el precio de 10.000 dólares
Al cierre de esta nota el precio del BTC lograba 10.264 USD. Pero ¿Por qué ha luchado tanto en los últimos meses cuando el oro se ha disparado a sus máximos históricos? Te dejamos un recuento y perspectiva para que uses esta información en Faswet y logres los mejores rendimientos.
https://preview.redd.it/pgcc6g0abfd51.png?width=987&format=png&auto=webp&s=a8a4b26956633f6d001042e02ff29d43334e6068
Julio 27.- Este domingo 26 de julio pasó lo que se venía esperando hace un buen tiempo: Bitcoin superó la barrera de los 10.000 dólares y luego de un par de horas empezó a buscar un piso definido sobre este precio de manera estable. Veamos de manera sucinta el comportamiento de la reina de las criptomonedas y su perspectiva según la lectura de algunos analistas junto a la revisión de los gráficos.
Comportamiento de la economía criptográfica
A principios de este año, los inversores en activos digitales agotaban los billones de dólares de las inyecciones de dinero de bancos centrales en respuesta a la recesión mundial inducida por el coronavirus.
Lo que se sabía era que la avalancha de liquidez llevaría a la inflación, por lo tanto, aumentaría los precios tanto del oro, usado históricamente como cobertura contra la caída de los precios de monedas tradicionales, y a su vez del Bitcoin, conocido también como “oro digital” debido a su escaso suministro.
Sin embargo, desde finales de abril, cuando disminuyeron los giros del mercado relacionados con la enfermedad, el precio del Bitcoin se fue quedando detrás del oro, frustrando las expectativas de inversión de la criptomoneda que se esperaban.
Precios del oro frente a Bitcoin
Los precios del oro aumentaron durante la semana pasada superando el máximo histórico de cierre de 1,891.90 USD por onza alcanzado en 2011, y ahora se cotiza a un máximo intradiario récord de 1,940 USD por onza. Su máximo anterior de 1,921 USD se alcanzó en septiembre de 2011.
Mientras tanto, Bitcoin se ha estancado en un estrecho rango de negociación desde abril y solo la pasada noche del domingo alcanzó los 10,200 USD, un nivel lejano de su máximo histórico de 20,000 USD alcanzado en 2017.
Según inversores y analistas esto es normal porque Bitcoin es mucho menos maduro que el oro y, por lo tanto, carecer de un historial creíble como cobertura de la inflación. Por lo tanto, tiene dificultades para atraer ofertas de soporte a pesar de un aumento reciente en las expectativas de inflación.
La sensibilidad a la inflación de Bitcoin no ha sido puesta a prueba en la última década, pues no se ha dado una presión sostenida sobre los precios.
Esto significa un cambio de tono de hace unos meses, cuando la exageración alcista sobre Bitcoin era tan popular que eliminó cualquier reserva sobre el limitado historial comercial de Bitcoin o el tamaño del mercado.
De otro lado el ETH, la segunda criptomoneda más grande después de Bitcoin, ha ganado un 150% este año, mientras Bitcoin ha subido un 42% en 2020.
Debe tenerse en cuenta que Bitcoin tiene su propia microeconomía exclusiva dentro de la criptografía, incluidos los ciclos de dificultad de minería, el entorno regulatorio cambiante y otros factores que tienen poco que ver con la inflación, que terminan afectando su movimiento.
Inflación y Bitcoin
La expectativa de inflación de Estados Unidos aumentó a 1.51%, la más alta desde febrero, desde el 0,5% el 19 de marzo, ya que el balance de la Reserva Federal se expandió en más de 3 billones USD.
Bitcoin inicialmente aumentó junto con el aumento en las expectativas de inflación. El movimiento de 3,867 USD a 10,000 USD visto en dos meses a mediados de mayo probablemente fue impulsado por la narrativa alcista que rodeó el halving.
Desde entonces, la criptomoneda estuvo bloqueada en el rango de 9,000 USD a 10,000 USD hasta el 26 de julio, mientras que las expectativas de inflación continuaron aumentando.
Mientras tanto, el oro aumentó en un promedio del 15% en términos reales o ajustados a la inflación en los ocho años entre 1974 y 2008, cuando la inflación anual de los Estados Unidos, medida por el índice de precios al consumidor, fue superior al 5%.
El precio del oro se duplicó a alrededor de 1,920 USD desde 850 USD en los tres años posteriores al colapso de mediados de 2008, ya que las inyecciones de liquidez de emergencia de la FED elevaron las expectativas de inflación.
La historia del oro como cobertura de la inflación es bien conocida y es una cobertura de larga data contra las catástrofes. Bitcoin no lo es aún, se encuentra en periodo de prueba por decirlo de alguna manera.
De hecho, toda la existencia de Bitcoin, desde su lanzamiento a principios de 2009, se ha desarrollado en un entorno de baja inflación.
La tasa de inflación de equilibrio a 10 años cayó de 1.6% a -0.62% en dos años hasta 2013, y se mantuvo estancada en un rango entre 0% y 0.8% de 2014 a enero de 2020. Eso está muy por debajo del objetivo de 2% de la FED para inflación anual, indica el rastreo de la información.
El mercado del oro, en alrededor de $10 billones, tiene suficiente profundidad y liquidez para absorber grandes entradas relacionadas con cobertura o refugio. La capitalización de mercado de Bitcoin es mucho menor, con $189 mil millones de dólares.
Analistas como Gavin Smit de Panxora han hecho un comparativo bastante adecuado para explicar el tema: “El oro es como un camión cisterna, mientras que Bitcoin es mucho más como una lancha rápida”.
Sin embargo, revisando de tres a cinco años, se verá la trayectoria de ambos, y sabremos que fueron una buena jugada frente a la inflación.
Otro factor que impide que las instituciones y otros inversores de mercados tradicionales hagan inversiones sostenidas en bitcoin es la creencia de que su precio y los fundamentos de la red no están conectados como el oro con el destino de la economía global, aún.
Es una reticencia propia de los activos digitales a que sean desvinculados al mundo real.
Esto se refleja en que los bancos centrales no inviertan en bitcoin, y que compren oro en momentos de estrés, porque fueron compradores netos durante el primer trimestre afectado por el virus.
La realidad es que ningún activo ha logrado los rendimientos del oro y el rally de Bitcoin está en proceso de que se construya de manera sólida.
Ahora bien, después del aumento sostenido del precio del Bitcoin sobre 10.000 USD, este domingo, solo el tiempo dirá si ese proceso de confianza a largo plazo acaba de comenzar.
Faswet te acerca a la realidad digital
Como acabamos de ver Bitcoin está en el camino de convertirse en lo que muchos conocedores del mercado tradicional y digital vienen prediciendo desde hace más de 5 años: Bitcoin será el oro digital y reserva para momentos de crisis.
Falta un poco en el recorrido de la confianza, pero se va logrando con cada paso dado al interior de proyectos como el que Emet pone a disposición de sus usuarios por medio de Faswet.
Como anotábamos la semana pasada, esta información debe ser usada en favor de los usuarios de criptomonedas. No te pierdas la oportunidad histórica de hacer parte del cambio más importante de la economía. Ingresa a Faswet y sácale provecho: https://faswet.com/es
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2020.07.27 17:55 EmetEnjoy Bitcoin superó de manera sostenida el precio de 10.000 dólares

Al cierre de esta nota el precio del BTC lograba 10.264 USD. Pero ¿Por qué ha luchado tanto en los últimos meses cuando el oro se ha disparado a sus máximos históricos? Te dejamos un recuento y perspectiva para que uses esta información en Faswet y logres los mejores rendimientos.
https://preview.redd.it/z7otx77f9fd51.png?width=987&format=png&auto=webp&s=d5404d22a8ad1eae5ac71dbc0723ea7d1830c77b
Julio 27.- Este domingo 26 de julio pasó lo que se venía esperando hace un buen tiempo: Bitcoin superó la barrera de los 10.000 dólares y luego de un par de horas empezó a buscar un piso definido sobre este precio de manera estable. Veamos de manera sucinta el comportamiento de la reina de las criptomonedas y su perspectiva según la lectura de algunos analistas junto a la revisión de los gráficos.

Comportamiento de la economía criptográfica

A principios de este año, los inversores en activos digitales agotaban los billones de dólares de las inyecciones de dinero de bancos centrales en respuesta a la recesión mundial inducida por el coronavirus.
Lo que se sabía era que la avalancha de liquidez llevaría a la inflación, por lo tanto, aumentaría los precios tanto del oro, usado históricamente como cobertura contra la caída de los precios de monedas tradicionales, y a su vez del Bitcoin, conocido también como “oro digital” debido a su escaso suministro.
Sin embargo, desde finales de abril, cuando disminuyeron los giros del mercado relacionados con la enfermedad, el precio del Bitcoin se fue quedando detrás del oro, frustrando las expectativas de inversión de la criptomoneda que se esperaban.

Precios del oro frente a Bitcoin

Los precios del oro aumentaron durante la semana pasada superando el máximo histórico de cierre de 1,891.90 USD por onza alcanzado en 2011, y ahora se cotiza a un máximo intradiario récord de 1,940 USD por onza. Su máximo anterior de 1,921 USD se alcanzó en septiembre de 2011.
Mientras tanto, Bitcoin se ha estancado en un estrecho rango de negociación desde abril y solo la pasada noche del domingo alcanzó los 10,200 USD, un nivel lejano de su máximo histórico de 20,000 USD alcanzado en 2017.
Según inversores y analistas esto es normal porque Bitcoin es mucho menos maduro que el oro y, por lo tanto, carecer de un historial creíble como cobertura de la inflación. Por lo tanto, tiene dificultades para atraer ofertas de soporte a pesar de un aumento reciente en las expectativas de inflación.
La sensibilidad a la inflación de Bitcoin no ha sido puesta a prueba en la última década, pues no se ha dado una presión sostenida sobre los precios.
Esto significa un cambio de tono de hace unos meses, cuando la exageración alcista sobre Bitcoin era tan popular que eliminó cualquier reserva sobre el limitado historial comercial de Bitcoin o el tamaño del mercado.
De otro lado el ETH, la segunda criptomoneda más grande después de Bitcoin, ha ganado un 150% este año, mientras Bitcoin ha subido un 42% en 2020.
Debe tenerse en cuenta que Bitcoin tiene su propia microeconomía exclusiva dentro de la criptografía, incluidos los ciclos de dificultad de minería, el entorno regulatorio cambiante y otros factores que tienen poco que ver con la inflación, que terminan afectando su movimiento.

Inflación y Bitcoin

La expectativa de inflación de Estados Unidos aumentó a 1.51%, la más alta desde febrero, desde el 0,5% el 19 de marzo, ya que el balance de la Reserva Federal se expandió en más de 3 billones USD.
Bitcoin inicialmente aumentó junto con el aumento en las expectativas de inflación. El movimiento de 3,867 USD a 10,000 USD visto en dos meses a mediados de mayo probablemente fue impulsado por la narrativa alcista que rodeó el halving.
Desde entonces, la criptomoneda estuvo bloqueada en el rango de 9,000 USD a 10,000 USD hasta el 26 de julio, mientras que las expectativas de inflación continuaron aumentando.
Mientras tanto, el oro aumentó en un promedio del 15% en términos reales o ajustados a la inflación en los ocho años entre 1974 y 2008, cuando la inflación anual de los Estados Unidos, medida por el índice de precios al consumidor, fue superior al 5%.
El precio del oro se duplicó a alrededor de 1,920 USD desde 850 USD en los tres años posteriores al colapso de mediados de 2008, ya que las inyecciones de liquidez de emergencia de la FED elevaron las expectativas de inflación.
La historia del oro como cobertura de la inflación es bien conocida y es una cobertura de larga data contra las catástrofes. Bitcoin no lo es aún, se encuentra en periodo de prueba por decirlo de alguna manera.
De hecho, toda la existencia de Bitcoin, desde su lanzamiento a principios de 2009, se ha desarrollado en un entorno de baja inflación.
La tasa de inflación de equilibrio a 10 años cayó de 1.6% a -0.62% en dos años hasta 2013, y se mantuvo estancada en un rango entre 0% y 0.8% de 2014 a enero de 2020. Eso está muy por debajo del objetivo de 2% de la FED para inflación anual, indica el rastreo de la información.
El mercado del oro, en alrededor de $10 billones, tiene suficiente profundidad y liquidez para absorber grandes entradas relacionadas con cobertura o refugio. La capitalización de mercado de Bitcoin es mucho menor, con $189 mil millones de dólares.
Analistas como Gavin Smit de Panxora han hecho un comparativo bastante adecuado para explicar el tema: “El oro es como un camión cisterna, mientras que Bitcoin es mucho más como una lancha rápida”.
Sin embargo, revisando de tres a cinco años, se verá la trayectoria de ambos, y sabremos que fueron una buena jugada frente a la inflación.
Otro factor que impide que las instituciones y otros inversores de mercados tradicionales hagan inversiones sostenidas en bitcoin es la creencia de que su precio y los fundamentos de la red no están conectados como el oro con el destino de la economía global, aún.
Es una reticencia propia de los activos digitales a que sean desvinculados al mundo real.
Esto se refleja en que los bancos centrales no inviertan en bitcoin, y que compren oro en momentos de estrés, porque fueron compradores netos durante el primer trimestre afectado por el virus.
La realidad es que ningún activo ha logrado los rendimientos del oro y el rally de Bitcoin está en proceso de que se construya de manera sólida.
Ahora bien, después del aumento sostenido del precio del Bitcoin sobre 10.000 USD, este domingo, solo el tiempo dirá si ese proceso de confianza a largo plazo acaba de comenzar.

Faswet te acerca a la realidad digital

Como acabamos de ver Bitcoin está en el camino de convertirse en lo que muchos conocedores del mercado tradicional y digital vienen prediciendo desde hace más de 5 años: Bitcoin será el oro digital y reserva para momentos de crisis.
Falta un poco en el recorrido de la confianza, pero se va logrando con cada paso dado al interior de proyectos como el que Emet pone a disposición de sus usuarios por medio de Faswet.
Como anotábamos la semana pasada, esta información debe ser usada en favor de los usuarios de criptomonedas. No te pierdas la oportunidad histórica de hacer parte del cambio más importante de la economía. Ingresa a Faswet y sácale provecho: https://faswet.com/es
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